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37 Possible Causes for Hyperpigmentation, Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Increased

  • Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    The affected areas of skin also tend to be fragile and show hyperpigmentation (excess pigment) and hypertrichosis (excess hair).[medicinenet.com]

  • Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    Other characteristic signs of PCT include dark or reddish urine, general skin fragility, hyperpigmentation, and hypertrichosis.[symptoma.com] Areas of skin that are exposed to the sun can generate blisters, hyperpigmentation, and, sometimes, lesions that heal leaving a scar or keratosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Additionally, hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, sclerodermoid plaques, and scarring alopecia might be observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Hemochromatosis

    Approximately 6 percent of patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and cirrhosis develop hepatocellular carcinoma; this represents a 20-fold increased lifetime risk over[aafp.org] External genital hyperpigmentation was seen in one third of patients, and one fifth had hyperpigmentation of flexural folds, scars, and nipple areolae.[emedicine.com] PubMed was used to search the following terms: hemochromatosis, hereditary, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, keratosis, melanin, seborrheic, siderosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Cholangitis

    Hepatocellular carcinoma, once a relatively uncommon tumor, has been increasing in incidence since the 1990s because of its association with hepatitis C–induced cirrhosis.[clevelandclinicmeded.com] […] dry eyes dry mouth If you have chronic cholangitis for a long time, you may have: pain in the upper right side night sweats swollen feet and ankles darkening of the skin ( hyperpigmentation[healthline.com] […] eyes, eyelids or in the creases of the palms, soles, elbows or knees Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) Darkening of the skin that's not related to sun exposure (hyperpigmentation[mayoclinic.org]

  • Porphyria

    carcinoma. [58] Patients with variegate porphyria have also shown increased incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma. [105] In patients with acute hepatic porphyria, Baravelli[emedicine.medscape.com] Symptoms are: blisters on areas of the skin exposed to the sun such as the face, arms, and hands followed by crusting and scarring; hyperpigmentation; increased hair growth[publichealth.va.gov] The affected areas of skin also tend to be fragile and show hyperpigmentation (excess pigment) and hypertrichosis (excess hair).[medicinenet.com]

  • Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    Recent studies indicate that individuals with acute hepatic porphyria have a 36- to 61-fold increased risk of manifesting hepatocellular carcinoma.[medicaljournals.se] Secondary infections can cause areas of hypo- or hyperpigmentation or sclerodermatous changes and may result in the development of alopecia at sites of repeated skin damage[mayomedicallaboratories.com] […] manifestations Increased fragility of sun-exposed skin blistering and impaired healing ( blistering photosensitivity ) Healing results in scarring and milia formation Hypertrichosis Hyperpigmentation[amboss.com]

  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    There is no increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. 5 Due to the destruction and disintegration of bile ducts, the disease can microscopically appear like vanishing[consultant360.com] Clinical features include 12 : pruritus (often the first symptom) jaundice skin hyperpigmentation, especially of arms and trunk xanthomata and xanthelasma due to hypercholesterolemia[radiopaedia.org] Hepatocellular carcinoma, once a relatively uncommon tumor, has been increasing in incidence since the 1990s because of its association with hepatitis C–induced cirrhosis.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

  • Toxic Liver Disease

    […] of hepatocellular carcinoma, and death.[aafp.org] The daily consumption of more than four drinks of alcohol (48 g) increases the risk of cirrhosis, as well as death from other causes. 10, 11 Alcohol abuse and hepatitis C[aafp.org] […] consumption has been associated with alcoholic hepatitis, fatty infiltration of the liver, accelerated progression of liver disease, a higher frequency of cirrhosis, a higher incidence[aafp.org]

  • Variegate Porphyria

    Recent studies indicate that individuals with acute hepatic porphyria have a 36- to 61-fold increased risk of manifesting hepatocellular carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] It is characterized by skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypertension and neuromuscular disturbances.[uniprot.org] We present the case of two sisters showing cutaneous signs typical of PCT: blisters, photosensitivity, hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, cutaneous fragility, and no acute[porphyria.eu]

  • Hemochromatosis-related Cardiomyopathy

    Cirrhosis develops but is rarely associated with portal hypertension or liver failure; the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increased about two-fold.[diapedia.org] Hyperpigmentation (bronze diabetes) and porphyria cutanea tarda are common, as is symptomatic arthropathy in the hands.[merckmanuals.com] Symptoms include fatigue, hyperpigmentation, diabetes mellitus (" bronze diabetes "), and arthralgia.[amboss.com]

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