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42 Possible Causes for Hyperreflexia, Long Tract Signs, Respiratory Muscle Paralysis

  • Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Massive Disc Herniation, Spinal Epidural Abscess or Bony Metastasis) Vertebral Fractures, Osteomyelitis Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES) Note - Cord Compression is a UMN lesion (Hyperreflexia[emdidactic.blogspot.com] This 15-year-old patient presented with right shoulder pain in the absence of the fever, back pain, or long-tract signs; therefore, the diagnosis of the spinal pathology was[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A patient’s reflexes may vary from being absent to hyperreflexia with clonus (rhythmic muscle spasms or contractions) and extensor plantar responses (a/k/a Babinski responses[matzuslaw.com]

  • Myelopathy

    Clinical hyperreflexia was tested at the MCP joint, using a six-axis load cell.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Physical examination commonly elicits long tract signs such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, and abnormal reflexes such as Babinski or Hoffman's sign.[neurosurgery.ucla.edu] […] sensory deficits - may be the least advanced form of the disease; - Brachialgia and cord syndrome: radicular pain in the upper extremity along with motor and/or sensory long-tract[wheelessonline.com]

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DISEASE DESCRIPTION SYMPTOMS ALS occurs in adults (40-80 years old) and will develop, in 3 to 5 years, to complete paralysis and patient death by respiratory muscle paralysis[icm-institute.org] […] remains normal Physical exam neck ptosis (neck drop) due to neck extensor weakness manual muscle testing elicits muscle cramping upper motor neuron (UMN) signs spasticity hyperreflexia[orthobullets.com] The affected muscles are eventually paralyzed. Death generally results from atrophy or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.[britannica.com]

  • Cervical Spine Fracture

    Patients with chronic spinal cord lesions above T-6 are particularly at risk for this response: 85 % will display autonomic hyperreflexia at some time during the course of[trauma.org] A complete spinal cord injury secondary to a CCJ trauma would present as quadriplegia with respiratory muscle paralysis, rendering the patient ventilator-dependent.[orthopaedicsone.com] This is characterized by spastic motor paralysis with hyperactive tendon reflexes, occasionally severe autonomic hyperreflexia, and some return of involuntary bladder function[trauma.org]

  • Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Patients with chronic spinal cord lesions above T-6 are particularly at risk for this response: 85 % will display autonomic hyperreflexia at some time during the course of[trauma.org] Background: Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) severely comprises respiratory function due to paralysis and impairment of the respiratory muscles.[cochrane.org] Table 1 SCI level with likely effect on ventilation Level of injury Effect on respiration Clinical consequence C1–3 Complete paralysis of all respiratory muscles Apnoea and[ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org]

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Irritative or obstructive bladder symptoms, as a result of spinal lesions causing detrusor hyperreflexia and incomplete bladder emptying, can be treated with oral anticholinergic[aetna.com]

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Hyperreflexia does not exclude GBS or one of its variants [18].[vdocuments.us] tract signs pharyngeal-cervical-brachial arm weakness, dysphagia and facial weakness pandysautonomia diarrhoea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, ileus, orthostatic hypotension[lifeinthefastlane.com] Presenting features are variable and may include significant respiratory muscle paralysis, in which case invasive ventilation may be needed.[casesjournal.biomedcentral.com]

  • Myelitis

    The symptoms and signs depend on the level of the spinal cord affected and the extent of involvement of the long tracts.[prognosisapp.com] […] spasms Numbness Pain in the back, extremities, or abdomen Paralysis Paresthesia Respiratory problems Sexual dysfunction Urinary retention The onset of symptoms in transverse[symptoma.com] The patient with detrusor hyperreflexia had an unrecordable CMCT-TA.[jnnp.bmj.com]

  • Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    The presence of drowsiness, Babinski's sign or hyperreflexia favors Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis over Miller Fisher Syndrome.[meducator3.net] tract signs, such as clonus, spasticity and hyper-reflexia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The patient initially presented with fever and headache and gradually developed ataxia, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory muscle paralysis, bilateral facial paralysis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Brain Neoplasm

    Neurologic examination revealed severe right leg weakness with hyperreflexia, ankle clonus, and a questionable plantar response.[thefreelibrary.com] […] of nerves/muscles of the face, or half of the body respiratory changes increased intracranial pressure (ICP) clumsy, uncoordinated walk hearing loss personality changes Symptoms[urmc.rochester.edu] […] of brain tumors in the brainstem (base of brain) may include: seizures endocrine problems (diabetes and/or hormone regulation) visual changes or double vision headaches paralysis[urmc.rochester.edu]

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