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158 Possible Causes for hypocretin

  • Streptococcal Infection

    Narcolepsy with hypocretin/orexin deficiency, infections and autoimmunity of the brain.[] CSF hypocretin was 8.6 pg/nL (normal 110 pcg/nL). His polysomnography suggested sleep efficiency of 59% and restlessness.[] Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency occurs in approximately 1 out of 3,000 individuals. The incidence in children is not known.[]

  • Narcolepsy

    […] receptor agonists, hypocretin neuronal transplantation, transforming hypocretin stem cells into hypothalamic neurons, and hypocretin gene therapy.[] To delineate the spectrum of the hypocretin deficiency syndrome and to establish CSF hypocretin-1 measurements as a diagnostic tool for narcolepsy.[] […] to try limiting hypocretin neuron loss.[]

  • Narcolepsy-Cataplexy Syndrome

    Loss of hypothalamic neurons that secrete hypocretin is the underlying cause, but the mechanism remains unclear.[] Hypocretin-based therapies - hypocretin agonists, hypocretin cell transplantation, gene therapy. Nicotine. [ 31 ][] Mercola It’s estimated that up to 200,000 Americans have narcolepsy, a disorder that involves the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons. 1 Hypocretin, also known as orexin,[]

  • Cataplexy

    Low hypocretin-1 values were found in 72 percent of those patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy.[] EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 ( 110 pg/mL). 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.[] All of the NPC cases with cataplexy demonstrated low levels of CSF hypocretin-1, confirming the association of reduced CSF hypocretin-1 levels with cataplexy in NPC.[]

  • Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    All nine hypocretin-deficient patients were human leuckocyte antigen (HLA) DR2 positive, while two who had normal CSF hypocretin-1 levels were HLA DR2 negative.[] Although disruption of hypocretin signaling in rodents reduces drug-seeking behaviors, our results do not support that hypocretin deficiency constitutes a protective factor[] As hypocretin peptides excite the histaminergic system by the hypocretin receptor 2, [19] hypocretin deficiency may result in excessive daytime sleepiness via decreased histaminergic[]

  • ROHHAD Syndrome

    The diagnosis was confirmed by showing an absence of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid.[] The co-occurrence of ROHHAD with narcolepsy and the noted absence of hypocretin-1 in this patient’s cerebrospinal fluid led us to consider that genes specific to hypocretin[] This alternative could explain the variable timing of onset in the disease Hypocretin 1.[]

  • Hypersomnia

    Her hypocretin, the hypothalamic neuropeptide controlling sleep-awake cycle, was significantly low in the cerebrospinal fluid (146 pg/mL) on admission.[] The level of hypocretin in cerebrospinal fluid was decreased in this patient.[] Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a member of the AQP superfamily, is strongly expressed in the hypothalamus in which orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons are primarily concentrated.[]

  • Narcolepsy 3

    Hypocretin-based therapies - hypocretin agonists, hypocretin cell transplantation, gene therapy. Nicotine. [ 31 ][] Most people have about 75,000 hypocretins while people with narcolepsy have only about 7,000.[] People with narcolepsy have been found to have a markedly decreased number of hypocretin nerve cells in the brain.[]

  • Kleine-Levin Syndrome

    However, partial hypocretin lesions without low CSF hypocretin-1 consequences cannot be definitely excluded in those disorders.[] A twofold decrease in hypocretin-1 was evidenced during the period of hypersomnia in comparison with the asymptomatic interval.[] Cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) hypocretin-1, histamine (HA), and its major metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MHA) levels were measured in two KLS patients in and out of episode[]

  • Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia - Deafness - Narcolepsy

    CSF hypocretin-1 was 191 pg/mL (normal values 200 pg/mL). Mild brain atrophy was observed on MRI, with cerebellar involvement.[] Jennum, Poul; Mignot, Emmanuel; Kornum, Birgitte R // European Journal of Human Genetics;Nov2015, Vol. 23 Issue 11, p1573 Type 1 narcolepsy, an autoimmune disease affecting hypocretin[] A person with narcolepsy has a shortage of hypocretin , often due to some sort of autoimmune disease, injury, or illness that destroys some or most of their hypocretin secreting[]

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