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464 Possible Causes for Hypokalemia, Hypovolemia

  • VIPoma

    Hypokalemia and impaired glucose tolerance occur in 50% of patients. Achlorhydria is also a feature.[] Markedly elevated VIP plasma levels in the VIPoma syndrome lead to intestinal secretion with severe secretory diarrhea, resulting in hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and acidosis[] Dehydration may also lead to hypovolemia, which can in some cases lead to renal failure.[]

  • Loop Diuretic

    , syncope, and other manifestations of hypovolemia.[] […] severe hypokalemia or other electrolyte abnormalities were observed between the groups.[] Bumetanide has demonstrated an adverse-reaction profile similar to that of furosemide, although the incidence of hypochloremia and hypokalemia is greater with bumetanide.[]

  • Laxative Abuse

    Hypovolemia in acute diarrhea can result in metabolic acidosis. These manifestations are potentially life threatening.[] Laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia and volume depletion. Hypokalemia, in turn, can lead to rhabdomyolysis.[] Acute diarrhea: Metabolic acidosis due to hypovolemia Chronic diarrhea: Metabolic alkalosis secondary to hypokalemia-induced inhibition of chloride uptake in the intestine[]

  • Nephrotic Syndrome

    There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia.[] Monitor patients for signs and symptoms Acthar can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and hypokalemia.[] If hypokalemia develops, an oral potassium supplement or spironolactone may be added.[]

  • Acute Peritonitis

    Leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and acidosis may be present, but they are not specific findings.[] As previously mentioned, hypovolemia may occur in the absence of treatment, which may ultimately result in hypotension and shock.[] Dehydration, hypovolemia, and sepsis may result in decreased body temperature and death. 2 Signs of shock may develop within a few hours.[]

  • Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Overdosage can result in ileus, severe diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and hypovolemia.[] […] helpful to use as a framework to think about precipitants: - Increased ammonia production/absorption: - Excess dietary protein - GI bleed (protein load) - Electrolytes (hypokalemia[] […] varices ) dietary intake of large quantities of protein (e.g. meat) reduced nitrogen excretion constipation renal failure metabolic or drug interactions hyponatremia or hypokalemia[]

  • Caffeine

    BACKGROUND: Excessive ingestion of caffeine can induce hypokalemia, which affects the neuromuscular system and can lead to paralysis.[] ., patients with nOH may have their symptoms worsened by medications, hypovolemia, intrinsic cardiovascular disease, and other factors [ 6 , 7 ].[] Excessive intake of caffeine may produce arrhythmias and pronounced hypokalemia and ensuing ventricular fibrillation.[]

  • Anorexia Nervosa

    Nutritional support was begun slowly, however electrolyte derangements began to manifest on hospital day 2, with hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia[] Patients with chronic emesis and use of cathartics present with classic metabolic disturbance: hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis.[] Four patients with a BMI13.5 kg/m 2 , bradycardia (40 bpm), and /or hypokalemia (3.2 mmol/liter), and/or binge-eating and vomiting (5 times/day) were treated as in-patients[]

  • Lipoid Nephrosis

    The result is edema and hypovolemia, which stimulates tubular reabsorption of sodium and water to increase intravascular volume.[] This array of alterations (hypovolemia, hyperdyslipidemia, urinary loss of anticoagulants, and thrombocytosis) is worsened by an increase in circulating fibrinogen, factors[] Treatment includes measures to clear proteinuria, reverse hypovolemia, and reduce edema.[]

  • Theophylline

    Abstract Metabolic and electrolyte abnormalities, including hypokalemia, hyperglycemia and lactic acidosis, are associated with theophylline overdose.[] Although his peak theophylline concentration was 157 mumol/L (28.2 micrograms/mL), it was associated with significant leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia[] Hypokalemia , hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia , hypophosphatemia , and acidosis commonly occur after an acute overdose.[]

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