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633 Possible Causes for Hyponatremia, Metabolic Encephalopathy

  • Chronic Kidney Insufficiency

    encephalopathy).[] Hypocalcemia (see chapter) Hyponatremia (see chapter) Uremia: The three most severe forms of uremia are encephalopathy, bleeding diathesis, and pericarditis.[] While this is not an all-inclusive list, some of the common conditions are: Anemia Hypertension Electrolyte imbalance, hyperparathyroidism Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis[]

  • Hyponatremia

    Arieff AI et al . (1995) Age, gender, and vasopressin affect survival and brain adaptation in rats with metabolic encephalopathy . Am J Physiol 268 : R1143–R1152 16.[] [ edit ] True hyponatremia, also known as hypotonic hyponatremia, is the most common type.[] Bryan Young, Metabolic Encephalopathies, Disorders of Consciousness, 10.1016/S0072-9752(07)01707-1, (115-166), (2008).[]

  • Acute Kidney Failure

    ., diarrhea and vomiting) should be given intravenous fluid Complications Hyperkalemia Metabolic acidosis Uremic encephalopathy and platelet dysfunction Anemia Chronic kidney[] Treatment of hyponatremia is generally free-water restriction. In patients with severe AKI and more profound hyponatremia, renal replacement therapy may be necessary.[] Indications for Dialysis Pulmonary oedema unresponsive to medical treatment Hyperkalaemia ( 6.5 mmol/L) unresponsive to treatment Metabolic acidosis (pH Pericarditis Encephalopathy[]

  • Congestive Heart Failure

    We describe the use of conivaptan in a 4-month-old infant girl with severe hypervolemic hyponatremia and heart failure.[] It seems that icodextrin may contribute to clinically relevant hyponatremia if the hyponatremia is compounded by other factors.[] hyponatremia and edema.[]

  • Hepatic Encephalopathy

    encephalopathies into the differential diagnosis.[] Risk Factors that increase your chances of developing hepatic encephalopathy include: Certain conditions that affect the levels of fluids and electrolytes such as hyponatremia[] […] bleed (e.g. from varices ) dietary intake of large quantities of protein (e.g. meat) reduced nitrogen excretion constipation renal failure metabolic or drug interactions hyponatremia[]

  • Liver Failure

    Delirium tremens or Wernicke's encephalopathy. Metabolic upset such as hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis, electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia, hypercapnia.[] After admission, although several major symptoms, including diarrhea, ascites, hyponatremia, and hypoproteinemia, were greatly improved through appropriate treatments, his[] Also, severe electrolye abnormalities (hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, also metabolic acidosis). Patients often need CVVH. 5.[]

  • Acute Pancreatitis

    : Hyperglycemia, Hypocalcemia, Encephalopathy, Sudden blindness (Purtscher’s retinopathy) CNS: Psychosis, Fat emboli Timeline of complications in Acute Pancreatitis Period[] […] necrosis with erosion into major blood vessels, Portal vein thrombosis (Variceal hemorrhages) Renal: Oliguria, Azotemia, Renal artery/vein thrombosis, Acute Tubular Necrosis Metabolic[]

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a type of respiratory failure characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and bluish skin coloration. Among those who survive, a decreased quality of life is relatively common.Causes may[…][]

  • Liver Disease

    Delirium tremens or Wernicke's encephalopathy. Metabolic upset such as hypoglycaemia , ketoacidosis, electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia, hypercapnia.[] While on waiting lists, these patients developed severe hyponatremia ( 125 mEq/L) that was refractory to conventional therapies.[] Delirium tremens or Wernicke's encephalopathy. Metabolic upset such as hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis, electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia, hypercapnia.[]

  • Myxedema

    Hyponatremia can also contribute to altered mental function.[] High mortality (30-60%) How do patients present (clinical diagnosis) AMS Hypothermia Hypotension Respiratory Failure Hypoglycemia Hyponatremia Potential physical exam findings[] […] function may be compromised with reduced glomerular filtration rate because of low cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction or because of rhabdomyolysis. [11, 12] Hyponatremia[]

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