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41 Possible Causes for Hypoxia, P Pulmonale, Pulmonary Systolic Murmur

  • Eisenmenger Syndrome

    Abstract An 8.5-year-old girl evaluated for central cyanosis, hypoxia and normocarbia was found to have aorticopulmonary window and pulmonary hypertension.[] ECG: almost always abnormal; shows features suggestive of right heart hypertrophy (with tall R wave in V1, deep S wave in V6, ST and T wave abnormalities, P pulmonale) as[] Along the left sternal border systolic murmur can be heard, and early pulmonary systolic shock.[]

  • Cor Pulmonale

    In ECG, P pulmonale was observed in 58 (99.66%) of cases. 48 (80%) were having right ventricular dilatation and right atrial dilation was observed in 30 (50%) of patients.[] Split second heart sound with loud pulmonary component. Systolic ejection murmur with a sharp ejection click over the pulmonary artery (advanced sign).[] The first cause of increased PVR is chronic long-standing alveolar hypoxia which induces pulmonary vascular remodeling.[]

  • Pulmonary Embolism

    Hypoxia is an independent predictor of both right ventricular dysfunction and 30-day mortality in these patients.[] Electrocardiographic findings ACS ( n 198) APE ( n 81) TC ( n 21) p value P pulmonale (%) 8 (4) 10 (12) 0 0.014 Right axis deviation (%) 0 6 (7) 0 Left axis deviation (%)[] Signs of pulmonary hypertension, such as palpable impulse over the second left intercostal space, loud P 2, right ventricular S 3 gallop, and a systolic murmur louder on inspiration[]

  • Pulmonary Hypertension

    […] failure – increased JVP, (large V waves), parasternal heave, TR murmur, hepatomegaly, peripherial oedema other signs of CHF hypoxaemia INVESTIGATIONS Bedside ECG – RVH, RAD, p-pulmonale[] Clinical signs include right ventricular (parasternal) heave, a loud pulmonary second heart sound, murmur of pulmonary regurgitation, systolic murmur of tricuspid regurgitation[] […] hypertension on chronic exposure to hypoxia.[]

  • Acute Cor Pulmonale

    Peaked P waves in the inferior leads 2.5 mm (P pulmonale) with a rightward P-wave axis (inverted in aVL) Clockwise rotation of the heart with a delayed R/S transition point[] […] and pulmonic insufficiency murmurs, and later, distended jugular veins, hepatomegaly, and lower-extremity edema.[] Hypercapnia, pneumonia, hypoxia, high plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure were associated with increased ACP incidence in patients with ARDS.[]

  • Left to Right Cardiac Shunt

    Results Patients with symptoms did not differ in age (32.7 10.3 years vs 31.7 11.7 years) from patients who did not present with hypoxia or subjective dyspnea (n 81).[] […] the aetiology of the hypoxia.[] Ordinarily, the left to right shunt will cause no problem; the right to left shunt can cause many problems (as low arterial O2 tension – hypoxia, severely limited exercise[]

  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

    In one (7%) patient severe hypoxia and hypotension developed when the valve was crossed with a guide wire and balloon catheter.[] Sixteen patients were asymptomatic with pulmonary systolic murmurs, although 6 patients presented with dyspnea.[] Various factors such as hypoxia, ionizing radiation, certain drugs have teratogenic effects.[]

  • Large Ventricular Septal Defect

    […] vascular resistance decreases left to right shunt and converts systolic murmur in the one-sided murmur.[] Over time, hypoxia can result in clubbing of the fingers and the proliferation of red blood cells (polycythemia).[] , loudest at the fourth intercostal space, usually with a thrill, and a loud and widely split pulmonic component of S2 With fixed pulmonary hypertension, diastolic murmur[]

  • Endocardial Cushion Defect

    In those with severe right-sided duct-dependent lesions, closure of the ductus causes increasing hypoxia and cyanosis.[] A systolic murmur of a ventricular septal defect can be heard as well as the systolic murmur of mitral insufficiency.[] […] hypertension; a grade 2 to 3/6 systolic murmur; and sometimes a diastolic murmur at the apex and low left sternal border (see table Heart Murmur Intensity ).[]

  • Congenital Heart Disease

    In a neonate with bradycardia and hypoxia, and clinical concern for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD), highly unusual ECG findings were present.[] […] ejection-type murmurs at the left lower sternal border over the pulmonary area Anemia Weight gain The current medication regimen should also be reviewed for appropriate indications[] . … In premature infants and in those with persistent hypoxia the DA may remain open for much longer. … Oxygen is the most important factor in controlling closure of the DA[]

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