Penetrating chest trauma predominantly occurs after gunshot or stab wounds and the extent of injury can range from mild and local tissue damage to life-threatening bleeding, hemo/pneumothorax, and respiratory failure. Dyspnea, hemoptysis, and shock are some of the most common symptoms. A properly conducted…
Rib fractures are caused by blunt chest trauma, pathological, or bone-related disorders. They can be associated with high mortality and morbidity rates and should therefore be evaluated and treated promptly and appropriately.
The severity of complications is directly proportional to the number of affected ribs or…
Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease). In most countries, cardiac surgery (involving the heart and the great…
A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached. Penetrating injury can be caused by high-velocity projectiles or objects of lower velocity such as knives, or bone fragments from a skull fracture that are driven into the brain.…