The electrocardiogram could reveal left ventricular hypertrophy, left bundle branch block, ST segment depression, and negative T waves.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital disorder of the heart. It is made up of four anatomical malformations, hence the prefix tetra, which denotes a four part event. The anomalies are ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary infundibular stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and overriding aorta. One of the…
Acute myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening inflammatory disorder of the myocardium, most commonly caused by viral pathogens such as coxsackie A and B, as well as influenza viruses and other enteroviruses, but an array of infections and autoimmune etiologies have been described. Chest pain, dyspnea, and…
The ostium primum atrial septal defect consists of the absence of the interatrial septum in the atrioventricular canal portion, which causes interatrial left to right shunting. The malformation may occur by itself or in association with an inlet ventricular septal defect, as part of an atrioventricular septal defect.…
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart condition caused by the persistence of the ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus with small caliber may present with minimal signs or no signs at all. However, large caliber PDA may present with the following system wise symptomatology: General appearance: Patients…
Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a congenital defect of the heart valve between the right atrium (RA) and the right ventricle (RV) preventing the normal flow of blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and from the lungs to the rest of the body. Solid tissue is formed instead of a functional tricuspid valve between…
Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart defect characterized by a downward displacement of the base of the valves, into the right ventricle. Patients vary from neonates to severely ill adults at time of presentation. Patients might remain asymptomatic till an electrocardiogram or chest X-ray is performed in the later…
Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital heart defect in which a segment of the aorta is narrowed. Depending on the severity of the coarctation, it may present as a critical neonatal disease or it can remain asymptomatic for years. Milder forms of coarctation may not present in signs or symptoms during infancy.…