30 Possible Causes for Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency in USA

  • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome
    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
  • Hypoalbuminemia

    Protein-losing enteropathy due to enteric parasites , ulcerative colitis , gastritis , gastric carcinoma or lymphoma Parasites - Leishmania infantum Canine parvovirus Peritonitis Leukocyteadhesion deficiency Clinical hypoalbumineia may be non-specific, but in severe cases, peripheral ventral abdominal and limb edema, ascites and dyspnea due to pleural effusion … J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22(6) :631-639 ↑ Zimmerman KL et al (2013) Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I in a mixed-breed dog.[1]

  • HIV Infection
    Mycobacterial Infection

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is caused by two retroviruses (HIV-1, and less commonly HIV-2) that induce progressive destruction of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, one of the most important cells in the immune system. The clinical course involves an acute infection followed by a latency period of months, years or…[2]

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Mycobacterial Infection Disseminated Atypical Mycobacterial Infection

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is considered to be the most severe stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is life-threatening if therapy is not initiated immediately. Patients present with constitutional symptoms of variable severity, wasting, and numerous AIDS-defining illnesses. Clinical…[3]

  • Primary Immune Deficiency Disorder
    Mycobacterial Infection

    Patients diagnosed with primary immune deficiency disorder may show any one of several gene defects that cause the immune system to fail. Contrary to secondary immunodeficiencies, environmental factors triggering symptom onset cannot be identified. Many PIDD patients have a family history of immunodeficiency or…[4]

  • Osteosclerosis

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis Neuropathic infantile osteopetrosis Infantile osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis Infantile osteopetrosis with immunodeficiency IO with leukocyteadhesion deficiency syndrome (LAD-III) Intermediate osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schonberg) Pyknodysostosis (osteopetrosis acro-osteolytica) Osteopoikilosis[5]

  • Acute Inflammation

    The importance of adhesion molecules is emphasized by the clinical genetic deficiencies in adhesion molecules: In leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I , there is a defect … In leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II , a defect in fucose metabolism results in the absence of sialyl Lewis X, the ligand for E-selectin and P-selectin. … in most phases of leukocyte function, from adherence to vascular endothelium to microbicidal activity, and include the following: Defects in leukocyte adhesion , such as leukocyte[6]

  • Factor XI Deficiency

    is mandatory to screen breeding bulls, especially Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian crossbred bulls, for FXI-deficiency along with the ongoing screening for bovine leukocyteadhesion deficiency syndrome (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and citrullinaemia in order to prevent the propagation of these genetic diseases … Anim Genet 35:454-456. [ Links ] Muraleedharan P, Khoda VK, Grupe S, Mukhopadhyaya PN, Manfred S and Mehta HH (1999) Incidence of hereditary citrullinaemia and bovine leukocyte[7]

  • PGM3-Related Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation
    Increased Susceptibility to Infections (Bacterial, Viral, Fungal)
  • Immune System Disorder

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) NF-κB Essential Modifier (NEMO) Mutations Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency: the most common defect of the humoral immunity, characterized[8]

Further symptoms

Similar symptoms


  1. Hypoalbuminemia - Dog, http://www.vetbook.org/wiki/dog/index.php?title…
  2. HIV Infection, https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/hiv-infection
  3. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/acquired-immun…
  4. Primary Immune Deficiency Disorder, https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/primary-immune…
  5. Osteosclerosis, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteosclerosis
  6. General Pathology � Theme 5: The Acute Inflammatory Response, http://www.geocities.ws/m4pathology/Notes/Gener…
  7. Factor XI deficiency in Indian Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbreds and Bubalus bubalis, http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_artt…
  8. Immune disorder, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_disorder