Possible Causes for Leukoplakia in USA

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Mucosal ulcerations, leukoplakia, nerve palsies, trismus, halithosis, otalgia and pain, depending on the site and location of the tumor may be encountered. […] Erythroplakia and leukoplakia, as well as painful mucosal ulcerations may be seen in tumors of the oral cavity, while otalgia, paresthesias, nerve palsies, trismus and halitosis[1]

  • Congenital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Congenital acquired immune deficiency syndrome occurs due to mother-to-child transmission of HIV in utero, during delivery or breast-feeding. Depending on various factors, around 5-50% of children born to HIV+ mothers are infected. The diagnosis is made by a combination of clinical and immunological criteria, while…[2]

  • Dyskeratosis Congenita
    Oral Leukoplakia

    Oral leukoplakia that manifests in form of white patches that cover the oral mucosa. […] Leukoplakia is considered a precancerous condition and may precede malignant degeneration. […] Dyskeratosis congenita is a general term for genetic disorders that lead to excess skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and mucosal leukoplakia.[3]

  • Carcinoma of the Mouth
    Oral Leukoplakia
  • Tumor of the Floor of the Mouth
    Oral Leukoplakia
  • Balanitis
    Penile Leukoplakia

    Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Some of the following are complaints presented by patients of balanitis: Penile discharge Pain or difficulty with retraction of foreskin Impotence Difficulty urinating Tenderness and erythema of the glans penis Pruritus Foul smelling discharge Systemic symptoms such as…[4]

  • Hairy Leukoplakia
    Hairy Leukoplakia of the Tongue

    Oral hairy leukoplakia: diagnosis and management. […] Oral hairy leukoplakia as a sign of HIV infection.  […] Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.[5]

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Hairy Leukoplakia of the Tongue

    Additional disorders that belong to the B category are immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), cervical dysplasia (or cervical carcinoma in situ) and oral hairy leukoplakia[6]

  • Epstein Barr Virus
    Hairy Leukoplakia of the Tongue
  • Menopause
    Kraurosis Vulvae

Further symptoms

Similar symptoms


  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Symptoma
  2. Congenital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Symptoma
  3. Dyskeratosis Congenita, Symptoma
  4. Balanitis, Symptoma
  5. Hairy Leukoplakia, Symptoma
  6. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Symptoma