Eisenmenger’s syndrome (ES) or Eisenmenger’s reaction is defined as a condition in which an untreated congenital heart defect leads to pulmonary hypertension with reversed or bi-directional shunting.
The patients with congenital cardiac defects usually present with Eisenmenger syndrome before they reach puberty.…
Persistent fetal circulation (also called Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn, PPHN) is a condition caused by a failure in the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation to convert from the antenatal circulation pattern to the "normal" pattern.
In a fetus, there is high pulmonary vascular resistance…
Anthracosis is a form of pneumoconiosis, a chronic pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of dust. This condition results from prolonged inhalation of soot or coal dust particles which render the lungs black.
Because anthracosis results from prolonged exposure to coal dust or soot particles, diagnosis…
Heart diseases are one the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, because of increasing sedentary lifestyle. They could be congenital or acquired.
Congenital disorder manifests in newborn, and characterized by poor feeding, blue discoloration, cough and breathing difficulty. Coronary diseases present as…
Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare, but potentially fatal condition that may occur during labor or the in early postnatal period. Presumably, entrance of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation triggers an intense inflammatory response and leads to an abrupt onset of profound hypotension, heart failure,…
Atelectasis is the reduction or absence of air in part or all of a lung. It may be an acute or chronic condition.
Atelectasis may or may not show signs and symptoms depending upon the extent of lung tissue which has collapsed. If a major segment of lung tissue is involved the patient will present the following…