Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a type of malignancy affecting the pancreas. It is one of the cancers with the poorest prognosis, due to the fact that it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. The main symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, and jaundice.
A considerable number of patients diagnosed with…
Postcholecystectomy syndrome refers to persistence or development of symptoms after cholecystectomy. Both biliary and nonbiliary causes that disrupt normal bile flow may be responsible, and clinical presentation most commonly involves dyspepsia and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms include jaundice, fever and…
The clinical term “Pancreatitis” refers to the acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreatic gland as a result of its enzymatic autodigestion. Pancreatitis is one of the leading cause of gastrointestinal mortality and morbidity among hospitalized patients.
Patients suffering from acute or chronic pancreatitis may…
The malignant neoplasm of the pancreas is an aggressive type of cancer with a minimal survival rate, due to the particular biological characteristics of the tumor and the lack of symptoms prior to the advanced stage of disease.
Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas typically arise in an insidious manner, with the…
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner). Specifically it is used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and arterial thromboembolism. It is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina. It is given by…
Acute kidney failure (acute kidney injury or acute renal failure) is the abrupt loss of the kidney's capacity to remove metabolic wastes from the blood and to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body for optimum health. AKF, if left untreated, is potentially fatal.
The presentation depends on the etiology…
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. The most common symptoms and signs include severe, dull epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia and fever. Alcohol consumption and biliary stone disease cause most cases of acute pancreatitis.
The most common presenting sign of acute…
Acute cholecystitis is defined as an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, which occurs in response to obstruction of the cystic duct. It develops in up to 20% of patients with untreated gallstones.
Acute cholecystitis is a pathologic complication of prolonged biliary obstruction. It presents classically with epigastric…
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not…