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42 Possible Causes for Localized Edema, Tracheal Injury, Upper Airway Obstruction

  • Angioedema

    A general term for a vascular reaction of the deep dermis, subcutaneous or submucosal tissues, which corresponds to localized edema 2º to vasodilation and capillary permeability[] The patient with a gun-shot wound to the jaw, the tracheal crush injury, the diabetic with Ludwig’s, and the case of severe angioedema all occur regularly in the airway nightmares[] Additional treatments Intravenous epinephrine (1:10,000) should be used in patients who demonstrate upper airway obstruction, acute respiratory failure, or shock. [4] Aerosolized[]

  • Laryngeal Edema

    As both these substances are known to cause metabolic acidosis, localized edema, erosion and sensitization of both the respiratory and alimentary tract.[] If this is present look for subtle laryngeal and tracheal injury.[] The clinical symptoms include skin swelling, abdominal pain, and life-threatening episodes of upper airway obstruction.[]

  • Tracheal Edema

    Free Correspondence June 2007 Treatment of Supraglottic Airway Edema by Local Hyaluronidase Author Affiliations & Notes Keshavan H.[] If this is present look for subtle laryngeal and tracheal injury.[] Abstract We report two cases of severe upper airway obstruction caused by supraglottic oedema secondary to adult epiglottitis and Ludwig's angina.[]

  • Chest Trauma

    In a few cases of acute MR, pulmonary edema localized in the right upper lobe has been reported.[] Tracheal injury after blunt chest trauma is a rare but life-threatening condition. If diagnosed and treated early, the outcome is excellent.[] airway obstruction caused by massive subcutaneous emphysema, Int Care Med, 1984 , vol. 10 (pg. 43 - 44 ) [12] Acute ventilatory failure from massive subcutaneous emphysema[]

  • Pulmonary Edema

    According to the etiology, edema may be localized (in inflammation or in impaired venous drainage) or systemic (in right heart failure or in nephrotic syndrome).[] However, invasive ventilation increases the risk for complications including nosocomial infections (pneumonia, sinusitis) and tracheal injury ( Gay 2009 ; Keenan 1997 ).[] Negative-pressure pulmonary edema is a well-known complication of an acute upper airway obstruction, which may rarely present as acute alveolar hemorrhage in cases of severe[]

  • Subcutaneous Emphysema

    Inflammation and edema from infection result in an impaired local blood supply, leading to vascular thrombosis in the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues.[] Liver cirrhosis, gastric-fundus variceal bleeding, tracheal injury.[] Upper airway obstruction caused by massive subcutaneous emphysema. Intensive Care Med 1984 ; 10 : 43 –4 3 Caraballo V, Barish R, Floccare D.[]

  • Laryngeal Stridor

    This article presents the diagnostic features of conditions a radiologist may encounter in an infant or child with upper airway obstruction.[] Differential diagnosis includes bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (BRLNP), local hematoma, vocal cord edema and laryngeal trauma.[] The difficulty in defining the relationship between laryngo-tracheal injury and post-extubation stridor is that the presence of the endotracheal tube precludes direct visualisation[]

  • Tracheal Foreign Body

    […] reaction such as edema of surrounding tissue and granulation tissue formation, producing symptoms like respiratory distress, wheeze and a mistaken diagnosis of asthma and[] These types of foreign bodies are, not surprisingly, the most common associated with tracheal or bronchial injury.[] See also Upper Airway Obstruction The signs and symptoms of a foreign body in the upper airway or bronchial tree will vary depending upon the site of impaction.[]

  • Ludwig's Angina

    Despite intensive use of antibiotics, Ludwig's angina remains a potentially lethal infection because of the risk of upper airway obstruction and spread into the mediastinum[] […] patients intravenous dexamethasone and nebulized adrenaline have been used to reduce upper airway edema to defer or avoid airway instrumentation altogether.[] A guided intubation is used because blind intubations may lead to injury of the nasal, oral and tracheal mucosa.[]

  • Spasmodic Croup

    The local vasoconstriction in the subglottic mucosa produced by epinephrine can generate rapid improvement in symptoms.[] See also Acute upper airway obstruction Inhaled foreign body RCH: Consider Criteria Led Discharge Background viral inflammation of upper airway, larynx, trachea and bronchi[] Other causes of upper-airway obstruction must be considered in the differential diagnosis ( Box 1 ).[]

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