child who has a subacute disorder of the central nervous system that produces cranial nerve abnormalities (especially of cranial nerve VII and the lower bulbar nerves), long-tract … signs, unsteady gait secondary to spasticity, and some behavioral changes is most likely to have a pontine glioma.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant genetic disease in which progressive central nervous system degeneration (primarily of the cerebellum) results in the appearance of gait disorders, dysarthria, and severe motor impairment. The severity of the disorder and clinical progression markedly varies…
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease consisting of progressive demyelination of the peripheral and central nervous systems. In most patients, it is attributed to a mutation in the arylsulfatase A (ARSA) gene, which in turn hinders the production of arysulfatase A. This…
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common forms of motor neuron diseases. It is also known as “Lou Gehrig's disease”, after a well-known baseball player in New York. The hallmark of the disease is a mixed upper and lower motor neuropathy that is progressive over time. The upper motor signs…
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with uncertain cause and pathogenesis which mainly presents itself as impaired selective memory resulting in serious problems for social and occupational life. AD is a typical disorder of senility whose risk increases exponentially with age. It is very rare under…
Osteitis deformans, also known as Paget's disease, is a condition frequently observed in elderly patients, despite the fact that it's prevalence has decreased over the last 20 years. With unclear etiology, this pathological entity is characterized by abnormal behavior of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, leading to…
A spinal epidural abscess is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the epidural space, due to its insidious onset and nonspecific symptoms of fever, back pain and malaise. The diagnosis is often delayed, and radiculopathy accompanied by severe disability or even paralysis are seen in severe stages of…
Cervical spinal cord injury is a serious clinical condition characterized by damage to segments C1 to C7 of the spinal cord. Trauma to cervical segments is associated with the most destructive consequences such as quadriplegia, loss of respiratory, autonomic system function etc. If cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is…