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54 Possible Causes for Long Tract Signs, Respiratory Muscle Paralysis

  • Myelopathy

    Physical examination commonly elicits long tract signs such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, and abnormal reflexes such as Babinski or Hoffman's sign.[] […] sensory deficits - may be the least advanced form of the disease; - Brachialgia and cord syndrome: radicular pain in the upper extremity along with motor and/or sensory long-tract[] tract signs, ambulatory Class IIIB Objective weakness, long tract signs, non-ambulatory Japanese Orthopaedic Association Classification A point scoring system (17 total)[]

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DISEASE DESCRIPTION SYMPTOMS ALS occurs in adults (40-80 years old) and will develop, in 3 to 5 years, to complete paralysis and patient death by respiratory muscle paralysis[] The affected muscles are eventually paralyzed. Death generally results from atrophy or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.[] The usual cause of death is paralysis of the respiratory muscles which control breathing.[]

  • Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Background: Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) severely comprises respiratory function due to paralysis and impairment of the respiratory muscles.[] Table 1 SCI level with likely effect on ventilation Level of injury Effect on respiration Clinical consequence C1–3 Complete paralysis of all respiratory muscles Apnoea and[] They also present with a respiratory insufficiency due to the paralysis of breathing muscles, sometimes leading to a temporary or permanent dependence on artificial respiration[]

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis (MS, disseminated sclerosis, encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis is divided into the following categories: Relapsing-remitting MS, Secondary progressive MS, Primary progressive MS and Progressive-relapsing MS. Individuals[…][]

  • Spinal Epidural Abscess

    A spinal epidural abscess is a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the epidural space, due to its insidious onset and nonspecific symptoms of fever, back pain and malaise. The diagnosis is often delayed, and radiculopathy accompanied by severe disability or even paralysis are seen in severe stages of[…][]

  • Cervical Spine Fracture

    A complete spinal cord injury secondary to a CCJ trauma would present as quadriplegia with respiratory muscle paralysis, rendering the patient ventilator-dependent.[] Owing to its proximity to the cardiovascular and respiratory centers in the brainstem , injuries to this region of the spine can be accompanied by large variations in vital[]

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    tract signs pharyngeal-cervical-brachial arm weakness, dysphagia and facial weakness pandysautonomia diarrhoea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, ileus, orthostatic hypotension[] Presenting features are variable and may include significant respiratory muscle paralysis, in which case invasive ventilation may be needed.[] In severe cases, paralysis of respiratory muscles requires artificial ventilation on a respirator.[]

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 3

    Findings on sensory examination are normal, and long-tract signs are absent.[] Neuronal degeneration leads to gradual paralysis of the extremities which may be followed by respiratory muscle paralysis in advanced stages of SMA I &II.[] […] the muscles and severe respiratory distress, due to paralysis of the diaphragm, which tends to be the first noticeable symptom.[]

  • Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    tract signs, such as clonus, spasticity and hyper-reflexia.[] The patient initially presented with fever and headache and gradually developed ataxia, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory muscle paralysis, bilateral facial paralysis[] Four had Babinski’s sign and two had longtract sensory disturbance (Table 1 ).[]

  • Myelitis

    The symptoms and signs depend on the level of the spinal cord affected and the extent of involvement of the long tracts.[] […] spasms Numbness Pain in the back, extremities, or abdomen Paralysis Paresthesia Respiratory problems Sexual dysfunction Urinary retention The onset of symptoms in transverse[] On the fifth day of onset of symptoms his weakness worsened with additional flaccid paralysis of upper limbs and neck muscles.[]

Further symptoms