Cauda equina syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a group of symptoms resulting from compression of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.
Patients initially present with lower back pain in almost all cases, usually with sciatica and pain in the genitalia and rectum. Impaired sphincter function occurs in 15-30%…
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of the secretion or action of antidiuretic hormone characterized by polyuria and polydipsia. It may be central or nephrogenic.
The patients of diabetes insipidus present to the hospital with the complaint of polyuria and/or dehydration. The patient may pass 5 to 20 or even more…
Varicose veins are markedly dilated and tortuous veins, which are usually found on the leg.
In the legs, varicosities are common along the inner side of the leg, near the ankles and posterior calf region. The dilated veins appear blue, distended or elongated, looped or curled. Those suffering from varicose veins can…
A ectopic testis is a testicle that, although not an undescended testicle, has taken a non-standard path through the body and ended up in an unusual location.
The positions of the ectopic testis may be: in the lower part of the abdomen, front of thigh, femoral canal, skin of penis or behind the scrotum. The…
A hernia is caused by the protrusion of a viscus (in the case of groin hernias, an intraabdominal organ) through a weakness in the containing wall. This weakness may be inherent, as in the case of inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernias. On the other hand, the weakness may be caused by surgical incision through the…
Hereditary angioedema type 1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency and the onset of edema, abdominal pain and erythema marginatum.
Clinical features of HAE are largely indistinguishable across all types, but type 1 is characterized by a prodromal period in which a…
A lipoma is a benign soft-tissue tumor.
Lipoma are usually subcutaneous in origin and lie under the skin in regions of the body where there is ample of subcutaneous fat. Most common locations are axillae, arms, neck, shoulder and thighs. They do not grow in size too much and tend to limit the size up to a 1…
A psoas abscess is a relatively rare condition that usually presents with nonspecific signs and symptoms. Without prompt diagnosis and treatment, it may cause serious complications.
A classic triad consisting of psoas spasm, fever and back pain is characteristic of psoas abscess but is only present in 30% of…
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves a defect in the C1-INH protein.
A detailed history concerning angioedema should be done. The following should warrant suspicion of HAE: Family history of HAE Reccurent angioedema that is non-responsive to antihistamine, glucocorticoid or…