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1,558 Possible Causes for Lower and Upper Limbs Affected, Myoclonic Jerking, Photoparoxysmal Response

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) were noted in 18 (95%) patients with BAFME but 1 (10%) with EGTCS.[] By the jerk-locked averaging method, a positive spike time-locked to the myoclonic jerk was demonstrated in four patients before 15-20 msec of myoclonic jerk.[] Attacks may last several minutes to half an hour and more frequently affect the lower than upper limbs.[]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    responses (PPRs).[] The myoclonic jerks occur rarely in EMA. They are usually mild and are freqently restricted to the upper extremities.[] PURPOSE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is commonly associated with photoparoxysmal response (PPR) with a reported prevalence of 25-42%.[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[] Myoclonic-astatic seizures consist of symmetric myoclonic jerks followed by periods of absent muscle tone that can result in falls.[] PURPOSE: Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected
  • Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome

    About a third of people with JME may show an abnormal EEG in response to flickering lights (called a photoparoxysmal response).[] It has frequently been confused with, and should be clearly differentiated from, other normal jerking movements of sleep, such as partial myoclonic jerks and massive myoclonic[] Attacks may last several minutes to half an hour and more frequently affect the lower than upper limbs.[]

  • Familial Infantile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    response Increased epileptiform discharges in sleep state transitions Vaproate and levetiracetam good (lamotrigine can exacerbate myoclonus) – lifelong therapy Generalized[] One fifth of patients have photosensitivity, with myoclonic jerks precipitated by photic stimulation.[] Targeted and whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of 580 patients with photosensitive epilepsy or photoparoxysmal response as determined by EEG revealed an overrepresentation[]

  • Photosensitive Epilepsy

    A flashing strobe light, for example, can trigger a photoparoxysmal response in a predisposed individual.[] Seizure types in photosensitive epilepsy include focal onset occipital seizures, with initial visual symptoms, or generalized tonic seizures and myoclonic jerks seen in IGE[] Generalized myoclonic jerks Generalized myoclonic jerks are usually symmetric and predominate in the upper limbs.[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected
  • Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome

    Background activity kept stable during the course of the disease; generalized paroxysmal discharges and photoparoxysmal response gradually disappeared with a significant difference[] The myoclonic jerks occur in the muscles of the arms and legs closest to the torso, and are triggered due to a variety of common external stimuli. [7] Seizures begin at an[] GLOSSARY ANOVA analysis of variance ; KM Kaplan-Meier ; PHT phenytoin ; PME progressive myoclonus epilepsy ; PPR photoparoxysmal responses ; PSW polyspikes and waves ; SSEP[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected
  • Restless Legs Syndrome

    Complying with an irresistible urge to move the affected limbs brings temporary relief. Sleep may become disrupted, resulting in excessive daytime hypersomnolence.[] A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.[] […] and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.[]

    Missing: Photoparoxysmal Response
  • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    A characteristic photoparoxysmal response on electroencephalogram provided an important clue for the correct diagnosis of late infantile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis, which[] jerk and visual impairment.[] EEGs revealed a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) on intermittent photic stimulation in 93% (13 of 14) of patients.[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected
  • Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Type 6

    Photosensitive epilepsies and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the photoparoxysmal response. Neurology 1999;22:926-32. [Figure 1][] As the affected children grow up, they develop myoclonic jerking, and their seizures may become refractory to treatment. Synonym: severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy[] Generalized ictal myoclonic jerks: The generalized ictal myoclonic jerks are always preceded by clear-cut spike-wave discharges.[]

    Missing: Lower and Upper Limbs Affected

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