Regarding chronic forms of CS, about 14% of patients who had lower leg pain due to unknown cause were found to have chronic CS.
Patients may complain of mild pain or tenderness in one or both knees during activities that put a strain on the knees. Pain may be mild to moderate, to sometimes very severe and debilitating in some cases. In many cases, pain may be accompanied with a swelling on, around or slightly below the knee. OSD commonly…
Periostitis is a condition that describes inflammation of the periosteum which is a layer of dense connective tissue enveloping the bones. Periostitis may appear in various conditions, but trauma and infections are the most common causes. The diagnosis can be made through patient history, radiography, and magnetic…
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as shin splints, describes a condition in which pain occurs along the inner edges of the tibia, usually in association with physical exercise. Medial tibial stress syndrome presents with pain in the shin area. The pain can either be sharp and razor-like or it can have…
Erythema nodosum is an inflammatory disorder characterized by tender erythematous nodules. Causes of erythema nodosum include inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune disorders, infections, leukaemia and certain drugs. Erythema nodosum may be accompanied by systemic symptoms of arthralgia and fever,…
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease distinguished by the onset of ptosis, dysphagia, and weakness of voluntary skeletal muscles in elderly individuals. Choking, food regurgitation, and possibly life-threatening aspiration pneumonia are rare but important complications. Due to a lack of clinical…
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B is a rare disorder in which aggressive medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma may lead to life-threatening blood pressure changes, and mucosal neuromas are included in the clinical presentation. The majority of patients develop symptoms by the first few years of age. Through…
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue. It was first described by the French pediatrician Antoine Marfan in 1896. There are more than 25-30 different signs and symptoms in Marfan syndrome which can be of variable intensity and differ from patient to patient. Some people may…