The posterior support of vertebrae is lost (intersegmental instability) and the vertebra slips on the underlying vertebra. … Lumbosacral orthoses may be of benefit for some patients but should be used on a temporary basis to prevent spinal muscle atrophy and loss of proprioception. … Physiotherapy, lumbar traction, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation and lumbosacral orthoses are other treatment options for the management of spondylolisthesis.
Four motor symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: tremor, slowness of movement (bradykinesia), rigidity, and postural instability. … Instability is often absent in the initial stages, especially in younger people, especially prior to the development of bilateral symptoms. … The Queen Square Brain Bank criteria require slowness of movement (bradykinesia) plus either rigidity, resting tremor, or postural instability.