Atrophic gastritis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by destruction of gastric cells and replacement with fibrous and intestinal-type tissues.
Both forms of atrophic gastritis end in gastric atrophy. Symptoms of atrophic gastritis are, however, similar to those of chronic gastritis. H pylori-associated…
A stroke (cerebrovascular accident) is the sudden loss of blood circulation to an area of the brain, resulting in a loss of neurologic function. This can be due to ischemia (ischemic stroke) or a hemorrhage (hemorrhagic stroke).
Symptoms of cerebral infarction are contralateral hemiplegia, initially flaccid and then…
A bezoar is an indigestible mass composed of fibers and hair which is found in the gastrointestinal system. Consumption of hair, fibers or plastic which do not get digested, eventually form this mass.
Gastric bezoars can give rise to various debilitating symptoms. Affected individuals suffer from delayed gastric…
Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare myeloid malignancy characterized by primary eosinophilia and progressive organ damage. Diagnosis of this disease and distinction from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome requires the detection of determined mutations, demonstration of clonality of eosinophils, or observation of…
Radiation exposure may cause gastrointestinal, pulmonary, hematologic and central nervous system symptoms and their severity, as well as the patient outcome, is directly correlated with the dose of radiation received. Diagnosis is made by clinical findings and patient history.
The term acute radiation syndrome (ARS)…
Pernicious anemia (Biermer's anemia, Addison's anemia) is a type of megaloblastic anemia, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Common symptoms include fatigue, irritability, confusion, depression, gastrointestinal symptoms, weight loss, neuropathic pain and glossitis.
The clinical picture of pernicious anemia…
Heliobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that causes gastritis. Although about half of the world's population is chronically infected with Heliobacter pylori, only a small part of these people will eventually develop gastric ulcers or cancer due to this microorganism.
Most H. pylori infections remain asymptomatic…
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of ethanol despite its negative consequences. In 2013 it was reclassified as alcohol use disorder (alcoholism) along with alcohol dependence. There are two types of alcohol abuse, those who have anti-social and pleasure-seeking…
Anisakiasis is a rare parasitic disease in humans who eat raw marine fish and squid. It is caused by Anisakis nematodes when their larvae invade the gastrointestinal mucous membrane to cause inflammatory symptoms. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy along with radiological investigations like ultrasonography and…