Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), otherwise referred to as acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia, is a hematopoietic malignancy that involves the overproduction of cancerous white blood cells in the bone marrow.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a type of malignancy that most commonly affects children.…
Hairy cell leukemia (HLC) is a rare, chronic form of B-lymphocytic leukemia.
Patients usually present on diagnosis with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and circulating hairy cells. All the signs and symptoms of hairy cell leukemia are the result of the proliferation of the abnormal white blood cells. All of the symptoms are…
The average age of CLL patients is more than 70 years and it should be noted that a complex clinical picture occurs in more than half of the cases due to coexisting diseases. The CLL itself leads to unspecific symptoms such as general malaise and weakness, possibly also to fever, night sweats and weight loss. In…
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease in which enzyme deficiency leads to accumulation of glycolipids in various tissues, mainly in the monocyte-macrophage system. It is transferred by autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and depending on the subtype, patients may present with hepatosplenomegaly,…
Polycythemia vera is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disorder.
An increase in red cell mass is the primary feature of polycythemia vera. Bone marrow analysis, however, shows a proliferation of all three myeloid lines: erythrocytes, granulocytes and platelets. The onset of polycythemia vera is often insidious. Early…
Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder induced by somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells. Uncontrolled proliferation of stem cells that release a variety of growth factors leads to bone marrow fibrosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis.
During initial stages of the disease, thrombocytosis accounts…
Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) is a type of lymphoma, that is marked by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. The 4 subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma are: Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin disease, Mixed cellularity Hodgkin disease, Lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin disease and Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin disease.
Myeloproliferative diseases are a collective group of disorders characterized by the clonal proliferation of at least one hematopoietic cell lineage. The ensuing conditions are associated with severe complications.
Myeloproliferative diseases have similar clinical pictures and generally feature nonspecific symptoms such…
Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease. It characteristically involves the colon and extends proximally from the anal verge. The exact etiology of ulcerative colitis is unknown.
Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis can present rectal bleeding, mucous discharge from the rectum, and/or…