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357 Possible Causes for Meningismus

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  • Streptococcal Infection

    Meningismus was diagnosed in 337 patients.[] We report herein that a majority of children with headaches associated with meningismus, had evidence of a streptococcal infection when compared to a non-meningismus group[] meningismus with an increased ASOT (200-1030 IU/ml) in 117 children (39%).[]

  • Meningitis

    ,et al, 2017 A 57-year-old man with Unilateral Anosmia, Papilledema, and Meningismus Neurol 89:e86-e90, Bradshaw, M.J.[] ,et al, 2018 Acute Viral Encephalitis NEJM 379:357-366, Tyler,K.L., 2018 Chronic Meningitis Investigated via Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing JAMA Neurol 75:947-955,915[] ,et al, 2018 A Fatal Case of Undiagnosed Candida Meningitis-Role of Computer-assisted Diagnosis Neurologist 23:138-140, Finelli, P.F., 2018 Presentation of Diffuse Large B-Cell[]

  • Insect Bite

    Mosquito and tick-borne encephalitides such as those produced by the eastern equine virus or the West Nile virus also should be considered in patients presenting with meningismus[]

  • Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

    Sagittal sinus thromboses are usually caused by bacterial meningitis.[] Cavernous sinuses are covered in the dura between the layers of the meninges and the periosteum.[] These include identification of the primary route of infection, sepsis, visual defect, pupillary dysfunction and features of meningismus (photophobia and nuchal rigidity).[]

  • Mollaret's Meningitis

    Mollaret's meningitis (benign recurrent aseptic meningitis) is a rare syndrome with characteristic features.[] , fever, meningismus and various neurological deficits that last for a few days in a self-limiting fashion.[] Here we present an atypical case of mollaret’s meningitis in which the patient presented with headache and meningismus in the absence of fever.[]

  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis

    She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis.[] She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9 F (39.4 C) and had meningismus.[]

  • Viral Meningitis

    Symptoms can include sudden fever, intense headache and meningismus.[] Recurrent episodes of severe headache, meningismus, and fever; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis with large "endothelial" cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; and attacks[] However, neonates with bacterial meningitis often do not manifest fever or meningismus-the clinical symptoms may be nonspecific (e.g., irritability, high-pitched crying, listlessness[]

  • Echovirus Infection

    Meningismus, when present, varies from mild to severe. Only about one third of patients demonstrate Kernig and Brudzinski signs.[] Echoviral meningitis may have a biphasic pattern.[] Acute aseptic meningitis manifests as signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in the absence of bacteria or fungi.[]

  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Neurologic manifestations are common in patients with RMSF and range from headache, behavioral abnormalities, meningismus, and photophonophobia to more serious neurologic[] There are no meningeal signs.[] Four of these were abnormal: 1 patient had “prominent perivascular spaces,” 1 had focal arterial infarctions, 1 had diffuse edema, and 1 had meningeal enhancement.[]

  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    However, within 24 h, chemical meningitis causes moderate to marked meningismus, vomiting, and sometimes bilateral extensor plantar responses.[] […] palsy with diplopia, or subhyloid hemorrhage (i.e. dense red on fundoscopy, also called Terson syndrome – patient will eventually need referral to ophthalmology), and even meningismus[] Secondary vasospasm (causing focal brain ischemia), meningismus, and hydrocephalus (causing persistent headache and obtundation) are common.[]

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