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606 Possible Causes for Mental Retardation, Nystagmus, Obstructive Hydrocephalus

  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    A young boy presented with mental retardation and seizures with extensive hairy naevi.[] Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual[] hydrocephalus.[]

  • Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    CONCLUSIONS: Mutations within the FKRP gene can result in CMD associated with mental retardation and cerebellar cysts.[] […] associated MEB disease include increased pressure within the eyes (infantile glaucoma), clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts), rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus[] […] hypoplasia are also very frequent.36,38 Ocular involvement is an invariable feature, ranging from severe myopia and retinal hypoplasia to congenital and infantile glaucoma, nystagmus[]

  • Arnold Chiari Malformation

    At risk for vision problems, mental retardation, microcephaly, and seizure disorder.[] Eye movement recordings in two patients with Arnold-Chiari malfomation type 1 showed, in addition to downbeat and gaze evoked nystagmus, intermittent nystagmus of skew.[] Variable other central nervous system abnormalities might be present (partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, a small fourth ventricle, obstructive hydrocephalus[]

  • Spasmus Nutans

    retardation. [5] Many ocular disorders have been associated with sensory deficit nystagmus.[] Ocular motility recordings revealed an unusual latent/manifest latent nystagmus, pendular nystagmus with characteristics of an acquired nystagmus, and uniocular saccades.[] An eight-month-old child who presented with signs of spasmus nutans subsequently developed obstructive hydrocephalus, bilateral optic atrophy, and loss of vision due to a[]

  • Hydrocephalus

    Children with hydrocephalus have developmental defects of motor function, mental retardation, defective vision, and risk for epilepsy.[] Nystagmus – rapid abnormal movement in the eyes may be due to a number of causes. If you or your child suffers these symptoms, please visit your GP immediately.[] Patients with an intraventricular haematoma with no evidence of obstructive hydrocephalus were also excluded from the study.[]

  • Cerebellar Stroke

    Tuberous Sclerosis is characterized by seizures, certain skin abnormalities of the face and varying degrees of mental retardation.[] Remaining 8 patients were also symptomatic for vertigo, but they had spontaneous nystagmus. The latter group was called "disease control."[] Mezzadri JJOtero JMOttino CA Management of 50 spontaneous cerebellar haemorrhages: importance of obstructive hydrocephalus.[]

  • Spastic Ataxia with Congenital Miosis

    Mental retardation u – Mental retardation x Mental retardation unusual facies Ampola type Mental retardation unusual facies Davis–Lafer type Mental retardation unusual facies[] Frequency HPO Source Accession 1 dysarthria 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001260 2 congenital miosis 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0007728 3 nystagmus[] There may be other signs secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus.[]

  • Alexander Disease

    The patient initially presented at 9 months of age, with profound mental retardation and a history of seizures.[] Eye movement studies revealed square-wave jerks, gaze paretic nystagmus, rebound nystagmus, impaired smooth pursuit, impaired optokinetic nystagmus, and abnormal fixation[] The first MRI examination demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and cerebral white matter abnormalities (which were more prominent posteriorly).[]

  • Listerial Meningitis

    Symptoms such as ataxia, nystagmus, vertigo, facial numbness, dysphagia, persistent hiccuping, and respiratory failure ( 41%) may be present 3.[] A CT scan on admission showed mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles and the temporal horns, but no features suggestive of obstructive hydrocephalus.[] Abducens nerve palsy and nystagmus have also been reported among the initial signs of clinical presentation in some cases [ 8, 10, 12, 13 ].[]

  • Japanese Encephalitis

    We report a 5-year-old mentally retarded Japanese boy who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) two weeks after Japanese encephalitis vaccination (Beijing[] Examination during acute illness revealed restricted eye movements, opsoclonus, upbeating nystagmus, and cogwheel rigidity.[] Japanese Encephalitis Complicated with Obstructive Hydrocephalus. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Feb. 10(20):OD18-20. [Medline]. [Full Text].[]

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