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3,628 Possible Causes for Microcephaly (2-3 SD), Nystagmus, Ocular Muscle Palsies

Did you mean: Microcephaly (2-3 SD, Nystagmus, Ocular Muscle Palsies

  • Dysequilibrium Syndrome

    Microcephaly (-3 to -4 SD below the mean) has been reported in a few affected individuals. Life span.[] […] extensor plantar reflexes, distal muscle wasting, a distal sensorimotor neuropathy, a distal sensorimotor neuropathy predominant in the legs, and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus[] Short stature (height just below the 2 nd centile) is a feature in a few affected individuals. Deep tendon reflexes in the lower extremities tend to be brisk.[]

  • Wernicke Encephalopathy

    . - Ocular: pupillary changes. Extraocular muscle palsy; gaze palsy: nystagmus. Hypothalamus.[] An examination revealed spontaneous upbeat nystagmus ( Video 1 ), gaze-evoked nystagmus ( Video 2 ), and gait ataxia. She had no ophthalmoplegia.[] Cranial nerve VI (abducens) palsy causes weakness of the lateral rectus muscle and results in medial deviation of the eye, decreased abduction, and horizontal diplopia.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Miller-Fisher Syndrome

    Initial examination revealed nystagmus evoked by a bilateral horizontal gaze with left side dysmetria.[] Physical examination showed restricted eye movement without nystagmus, bilateral flattening of forehead and nasolabial folds, and positive eyelash sign.[] On examination, there was ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, areflexia and lower limb and gait ataxia.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Upbeat nystagmus was observed in all MS patients with trigeminal REZ lesions.[] […] time and space Symptoms symptoms of disease are based on the systems involved psych fatigue, depression, mood disorders central nervous system optic neuritis, diplopia, nystagmus[] The most frequent sign is symmetrical horizontal jerking nystagmus. Also common is lateral rectus weakness.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Machado-Joseph Disease

    The frequency of nystagmus was calculated for the 3 groups. RESULTS: Nystagmus was present in 88% of the MJD patients.[] Electronystagmographic (ENG) abnormalities included bilateral gaze nystagmus, saccadic pursuit and failure of fixation suppression suggestive of cerebellar-brainstem pathology[] The shared features include nystagmus in the horizontal direction, orbicularis oculi contractions, and bilateral esotropia.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Blepharofacioskeletal Syndrome

    […] at 2y)SmitheLemlieOpitzsyndrome[Porter, 2008]Short Stature (8 SD) (7 SD) Microcephaly (3 SD) (3 SD) Failure to gain weight Low birth weight Skin abnormalities Transient non-pitting[] Syndromes and diseases associated with exophthalmos, ptosis, strabismus, nystagmus, glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis and optic atrophy are discussed in detail.[] […] retardation Brachydactyly elbow wrist dysplasia Brachydactyly hypertension Brachydactyly long thumb type Brachydactyly mesomelia mental retardation heart defects Brachydactyly nystagmus[]

  • Strabismus

    […] the course of 6-12 months), eye muscle surgery can then be performed to eliminate the ocular misalignment and restore single vision.[] Ictal strabismus, sometimes associated with epileptic nystagmus, is an extremely rare epileptic phenomenon, suggestive of cortical involvement in monocular eye movement control[] Recently some degrees of stereopsis were reported in albinism patients with minimal clinical nystagmus, if any, in the absence of strabismus.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease

    A pair of female identical twins exhibited slurred speech, nystagmus, and oculogyral spasms starting at age 11.[] […] well as levodopa responsiveness with rapid onset of dyskinesia, clues to the diagnosis of NIID in patients presenting with parkinsonism include the presence of gaze-evoked nystagmus[] […] nervous systems, leading to the impression of multisystem degeneration. 1 These features include parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, chorea, dystonia, gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Oculomotor Nerve Paralysis

    Isolated third nerve palsy from mild closed head trauma. Arch Iran Med. 2012. 15: 583-4 18. Neetens A, Van Aerde F. Extra-ocular muscle palsy from minor head trauma.[] Usually the nystagmus is described in the direction of the fast phase Nystagmus can be physiological (oculokinetic nystagmus i.e. when looking out the window of a fast train[] Ocular motor palsy also can be classified based on (2) total palsy or partial paresis. Total palsy is full restriction of extraocular muscle in present.[]

    Missing: Microcephaly (2-3 SD)
  • Vertical Heterotropia

    The infranuclear pathway which comprises the cranial nerves and extra ocular muscles and can be affected by a variety of systemic diseases.[] PATHOLOGY AND GENETICS OF MCDs Microcephaly Microcephaly, defined as a head circumference 2-3 SD below the mean, is a condition most frequently associated with subnormal intelligence[] This cycloversion/vertical vergence helps damp the cyclovertical nystagmus (a cyclovertical “nystagmus blockage” phenomenon), aiding vision in the fixing eye.[]

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