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144 Possible Causes for Midbrain Atrophy

  • Perry Syndrome

    atrophy, predominant nonmotor symptoms responsive to levodopa, distinctive craniocervical levodopa induced dyskinesias, and a good response to high-dose levodopa therapy[] The proband displayed a series of distinctive features not previously described in Perry syndrome: a disorder of vertical downward saccades accompanied by progressive midbrain[]

  • Classic Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome

    MRI features include 1-4 : midbrain atrophy midbrain to pons area ratio (figure 1): reduced area ratio on the midline sagittal plane to approximately 0.12 (normal 0.24) 4[] ), and higher for global atrophy of midbrain (16 of 52 cases).[] Midbrain atrophy on conventional MRI correlates with the clinical phenotype of RS but is not predictive of PSP pathology.[]

  • Langerhans-Cell Histiocytosis

    Five patients had localized atrophy of the cerebellum, which was combined with midbrain atrophy in four ( Fig 7 ). One patient had localized midbrain atrophy.[] atrophy Autopsy ( 22 years) Diffuse T-cell-mediated encephalitic process of the entire brain with inflammation associated tissue destruction predominantly in the cerebellum[] The patients had additional hyperintense changes in the dentate nucleus (not shown) and midbrain atrophy ( Fig 7 ).[]

  • Brain Atrophy

    Impairment in the corresponding oculomotor pathways was associated with atrophy of pontocerebellar oculomotor structures in MSA and midbrain atrophy in PSP.[] Researchers found that the midbrain , hypothalamus and substantia innominata were generally the areas with the most atrophy.[] Deformation-based morphometry and independent component analysis identified PD-specific atrophy in the midbrain, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, medial temporal lobe, and[]

  • Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    These changes were driven predominantly by progressive midbrain atrophy.[] […] regions 3 deep grey matter and hippocampal atrophy (reported in adult-onset patient) 4 reduced midbrain to pons ratio (not as marked as in progressive supranuclear palsy[] Our aim was to utilize a method for brainstem atrophy, validated in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), in a group of adult patients with NPC, and explore its relationship[]

  • Cerebellar Ataxia

    atrophy on MRI.[] […] abetalipoproteinemia, and posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa. 13 , 32 Abnormal T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the brain stem suggest Wilson disease (predominantly midbrain[] One patient in the Mayo Clinic patient series (1%) met criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy with predominant cerebellar ataxia and had both cerebellar and mild midbrain[]

  • Shy Drager Syndrome

    Focal midbrain atrophy, involving particularly the upper part of the quadrigeminal plate, was obvious in five cases.[]

  • Wilson Disease

    An increase in the MR Parkinsonism index in Wilson disease is mainly due to midbrain atrophy and it correlates with neurologic severity and abnormal postural reflex.[] Cerebral and cerebellar atrophy.[] T2 hyperintensities, abnormal hypointensities in bilateral globus pallidus, cerebral cortical and cerebellar atrophy.[]

  • Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy

    Optic nerve and cauda equina enlargement and enhancement is common, as well as midbrain atrophy.[]

  • Dopamine

    Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI.[]

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