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22 Possible Causes for Positive Angle Kappa

  • Vertical Heterotropia

    Merrill KS, Lavoie JD, King RA, Summers C G (2004) Positive angle kappa in albinism. J AAPOS 8: 237-239.[] This is termed positive angle kappa. A large positive angle kappa can simulate exotropia.[] As the fovea is usually located within 5 temporal to the centre of the posterior pole, the normal physiologic angle kappa is slightly positive, with the light reflex displaced[]

  • Wagner Disease

    He also showed a large positive angle kappa (Fig. 1b).[] There was a positive angle kappa that measured 10 degrees (Fig. 1a).[] The patient demonstrated a large positive angle kappa by fixation OS.[]

  • Malnutrition

    However, the discordant BIVA /ESPEN- patients classified as false positives for BIVA showed clinical and body composition data (low FFMI, low phase angle) consistent with[] […] and the ESPEN definition was poor for the global population (kappa 0.56) and the population at risk of malnutrition (kappa 0.67) but was acceptable in patients with FO (kappa[]

  • Strabismus

    Pseudoexotropia exists when there is a large positive angle kappa, or a large angle between the two lines formed by the visual axis and the pupillary axis.[]

  • Exotropia

    Pathophysiology Pseudoexotropia occurs with a wide interpupillary distance or a positive angle kappa.[]

  • Non-Syndromic Ocular Stickler Syndrome Type 1 

    A positive-angle kappa or strabismus is common.[] DIAGNOSIS AND ANCILLARY TESTING The diagnosis is based on typical clinical findings, a positive family history, the lack of significant prematurity, and the exclusion of other[]

  • Isolated optic nerve hypoplasia

    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 46: 3892-3898. [ Crossref ] Merrill KS, Lavoie JD, King RA, Summers CG (2004) Positive angle kappa in albinism.[] J AAPOS 8: 237-239. [ Crossref ] Brodsky MC, Fray KJ (2004) Positive angle kappa: a sign of albinism in patients with congenital nystagmus.[]

  • Pellucid Marginal Degeneration

    The truth of this statement is evident in pediatric ophthalmology, when clinicians examine patients with pseudostrabismus due to a positive angle kappa.[]

  • Noncomitant Strabismus

    The term positive angle kappa is used to describe this condition ( Fig. 19-21 ). Vertical Deviations Isolated vertical misalignment of the eyes is uncommon.[]

  • X-Linked Recessive Ocular Albinism

    angle kappa [related to the anomalous decussation of optic axons] Albinism does not cause a delay in development or mental retardation.[] Positive angle kappa: a sign of albinism in patients with congenital nystagmus.[] […] albinism include the following: Refractive error and astigmatism Nystagmus Iris depigmentation and iris transillumination Strabismus Fovea hypoplasia Reduced depth perception A positive[]

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