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404 Possible Causes for Retinal Folds

  • Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    Retinal folds were located in the temporal half of the fundis in 11 of the 13 eyes with retinal fold.[] Abstract We evaluated the retinal function of retinal dragging (Rdrag) and radial retinal folds (Rfolds) in eyes with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) using full-field[] The majority of the mutations in FZD4 were identified in probands with retinal folds (15/21) and ectopic macula (5/21).[]

  • Microphthalmos

    A retarded boy with microcephaly, microphthalmos, and retinal folds is described. His mother and sister showed microphthalmos and the sister was also microcephalic.[] Reduced visual acuity in these cases is sometimes caused by the presence of papillomacular retinal folds.[] Posterior segment changes included bilateral elevated papillomacular retinal fold (13 patients, 72.2%); fine retinal folds (6 patients, 33.3%); chorioretinal folds (11 patients[]

  • Head Injury

    RH were present in 14 cases (66%); macular retinoschisis or retinal folds, in 8 (38%).[] There were 86 cases of accidental head injuries, with RH present in 2 (2%); there were none with retinal folds or retinoschisis.[] Designation of AHT was made using predetermined criteria independent of retinal findings. Retinal images were graded by two independent observers.[]

  • Alzheimer Disease

    Neurosurgeon Professor Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui, of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, said: “Analysis of retinal amyloid index (RAI) scores showed a 2.1-fold increase[] Results showed that there was a 4.7-fold increase in retinal plaque presence in patients with Alzheimer’s when compared to controls who did not have Alzheimer’s.[] Automated calculation of the quantity of retinal amyloid deposits was also done and this was marked with the retinal amyloid index (RAI).[]

  • Traumatic Brain Injury

    More severe retinal hemorrhages are associated with more dire brain injury. 22 Retinal and vitreous hemorrhages and nonhemorrhagic changes, including retinal folds and traumatic[]

  • Retinal Detachment

    Postoperative retinal folds are a rare complication of retinal detachment repair.[] Outer retinal folds (ORFs) and the macular status before surgery, together with postoperative ORFs and decrease in ellipsoid and/or interdigitation photoreceptor zone reflectivity[] Macular pucker and retinal fold did not occur in either group. Preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP; mmHg) was 14.5 2.9 in group A and 14.5 2.6 in group B (p 0.92).[]

  • Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    folds.[] After removing the core vitreous, the OVDs were carefully injected over the area where confluent retinal folds were formed with possible retinal breaks.[] It is caused by the formation and contraction of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) that ultimately lead to retinal folds and traction retinal detachments.[]

  • Papilledema

    RESULTS: We identified three types of folds in IIH patients with papilledema: peripapillary wrinkles (PPW), retinal folds (RF), and choroidal folds (CF).[] In severe IICP, circumferential retinal folds known as Paton’s lines may develop (Figure 4, 5, 6 ) ( 2, 8 ).[] Paton’s lines, described as retinal folds or buckling, may also be present. 8 More advanced stages of true papilledema manifest with peripapillary cotton wool spots and retinal[]

  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    […] osteomas dental anomalies congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium papillary thyroid carcinoma - usually cribriform morular variant 8 Typical symptoms and[] Associations colorectal carcinoma (see below) hepatoblastoma (400-fold increased risk compared to general population 3 ) extracolonic polyps (stomach, duodenum) desmoid tumors[]

  • Norrie Disease

    They exhibit retinal fold, retinal detachment, retinal traction and the formation of retrolental fibrovascular membrane.[] A second family, with a full-term female infant, was evaluated through ophthalmic examinations and found to exhibit ocular features, such as retinal folds, retinal detachment[] Loss of function of the NDP gene causes marked hypoplasia of the inner retinal cell layers and fibrovascular proliferation in the vitreous cavity, leading to retinal folding[]

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