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326 Possible Causes for Seizures Are Refractory to Treatment

  • Rosacea

    Isotretinoin 0.5 - 1.0 mg/kg daily 2, 3 Effective treatment for severe papulopustular rosacea, refractory rosacea Increase triglycerides, dryness, and joint pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] its use to patients experiencing treatment failures or intolerance of other agents. 19, 26 Oral isotretinoin may have a role in the management of refractory papulopustular[aafp.org] […] effects of tetracyclines are the main mechanism of action in reducing rosacea symptoms; erythromycin in pregnancy Gastrointestinal distress; metronidazole; neuropathy and seizures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Hyperventilation

    Abstract Topiramate is a recently released antiepileptic agent used in the treatment of patients with refractory seizure disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Status Epilepticus

    Seizures are refractory to treatment in patients with MS with chronic epilepsy; however, prognosis is quite good in patients experiencing provoked seizures during an MS relapse[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Right anterior temporal lobectomy was performed for the purpose of treatment of refractory status epilepticus and obtaining tissue diagnosis, with ultimate resolution of seizures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Prehospital treatment of seizures by emergency personnel is effective and safe, and may prevent cases of refractory SE.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Head Injury

    The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Puerperium

    Careful evaluation is required, especially in refractory cases and not responding to usual treatment.[openneurologyjournal.com] Keywords: Seizure, Puerperium, Brain tumor, Eclampsia, Case report, Cerebral function. 1.[openneurologyjournal.com] From the case we conclude that although the first diagnosis in pregnant or puerperal women with seizures should be eclampsia, there are other causes, such as brain tumor and[openneurologyjournal.com]

  • Bruxism

    Tiagabine is an anticonvulsant gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitor commonly used as an add-on treatment of refractory partial seizures in persons over 12 years old.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Stroke

    Theodore WH et al. (2002) Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of seizures: a controlled study. Neurology 59 : 560–562 90.[doi.org] Fregni F et al. (2006) A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy. Ann Neurol 60 : 447–455 91.[doi.org]

  • Sleep Apnea

    Treatment of the sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), protriptyline, trazodone, acetazolamide, or tracheostomy reduced seizure frequency and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Luciano First published November 1, 1994, DOI: Abstract We identified seven patients with refractory partial epilepsy and sleep apnea.[n.neurology.org] We identified seven patients with refractory partial epilepsy and sleep apnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Epilepsy

    Months to years later, affected children go on to develop a chronic epilepsy with recurrent focal seizures which are often refractory to treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We believe that ketogenic dietary treatment is the best option for children and adults with refractory nonsurgical epilepsy due to its efficacy, rapid seizure reduction, synergistic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Approximately half of adults and children who start a ketogenic diet have a 50% seizure reduction, which is impressive given that these patients typically have medically refractory[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Alcohol Withdrawal

    Severe alcohol withdrawal is characterized by seizures and/or delirium tremens, often refractory to standard doses of benzodiazepines, and requires aggressive treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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