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116 Possible Causes for Square-Wave Jerks

  • Perry Syndrome

    When square wave jerks occur nearly continuously, they are called square wave oscillations.[] Examples include square wave jerks, macrosaccadic oscillations and ocular flutter/opsoclonus .[] Square wave jerks consist of a small saccade away from and back to midline with an intersaccadic interval between movements.[]

  • Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration

    Identical cerebellar degeneration has been observed in non-alcoholic patients with severe malnutrition. 5 Eye Movements Square Wave Jerks Horizontal Saccadic Hypermetria Horizontal[]

  • Classic Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome

    Although healthy individuals also make square-wave jerk movements, PSP patients make slower square-wave jerk movements, with smaller vertical components. [3] Assessment of[] Patients may also exhibit square wave jerks, which are brief, horizontal, saccadic intrusions into fixation.[] […] vertical gaze limitation after extravolitional pathway activation with the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) or the Bell phenomenon Nearly continuous square wave jerks commonly[]

  • Deafness - Opticoacoustic Nerve Atrophy - Dementia Syndrome

    Although square-wave jerks may occur in up to 18% of PD patients, particularly in the levodopa “on” state, the presence of square-wave jerks in excess of 6 per minute suggests[] The ophthalmic manifestations of MSA-P are mostly ocular motor and include frequent square-wave jerks and saccadic pursuit.[] Fixation instability results in large, frequent square-wave jerks, which are present in 60% to 80% of PSP patients and may be continuous.[]

  • Erdheim-Chester Disease

    Extraocular movements showed square wave jerks with horizontal nystagmus at both extremes of lateral gaze without any restriction of extraocular movements.[]

  • Alexander Disease

    Eye movement studies revealed square-wave jerks, gaze paretic nystagmus, rebound nystagmus, impaired smooth pursuit, impaired optokinetic nystagmus, and abnormal fixation[]

  • Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome

    Two had square wave jerks and four had poor convergence. Vertical optokinetic responses were abnormal in five, and two patients had blepharospasm.[]

  • Friedreich Ataxia

    Oculomotor manifestations present early and include fixation instability (square wave jerks) and nystagmus. Visual loss may occur later.[] Square wave jerks in Friedreich's ataxia . Am J Ophthalmol 1978; 85 : 400–406. 7. Furman JM , Perlman S , Baloh RW . Eye movements in Friedreich's ataxia .[] The most common manifestation is fixation instability with frequent square-wave jerks. 1 , 2 , 3 To date, visual ophthalmic manifestations have been described in up to 30%[]

  • Heat Ray Cataract

    Note the flurry of square wave jerks in the horizontal trace (top), and also the wavering around of the eye position.[] Stimulant medications generally do not impair smooth pursuit but cause extraneous saccades instead ( square wave jerks ) Frequent offenders are medications for dizziness ([]

  • Diazinon Poisoning

    A similar combination of supranuclear gaze palsy and saccadic intrusions manifesting as square wave jerks often occurs in progressive supranuclear palsy.[]

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