Impaired iron absorption (due to villous atrophy of the intestinal mucosa) and blood loss are important pathological contributors to anemia in celiac disease[ 92 ].
Fecal elastase-1 is decreased in villous atrophy regardless of the underlying disease. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 31, 425–430 (2001). 139. Shah, S. & Leffler, D.