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Abnormality of the Vena Cava

Vena Cava Anomalies


Presentation

  • In the case presented herein (, ,, ,, ,,, Fig 10 ), the common iliac veins are also absent.[pubs.rsna.org]
  • In this pictorial essay, we present the ultrasound findings obtained in 8 patients with high deep venous thrombosis and inferior vena cava anomaly (absence of a segment), compared with images obtained by angio-computed tomography or magnetic resonance[semanticscholar.org]
  • In summary, this particular case of congenital absence of IVC is unique due to the fact that no other cardiac and/or abdominal visceral anomalies are present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Persistent left SVC (PLSVC) is a rare (0.3%) anomaly in healthy subjects, usually asymptomatic, but when present and undiagnosed, it may be associated with difficulties and complications of CVC placement.[journals.sagepub.com]
Asymptomatic
  • Persistent left SVC (PLSVC) is a rare (0.3%) anomaly in healthy subjects, usually asymptomatic, but when present and undiagnosed, it may be associated with difficulties and complications of CVC placement.[journals.sagepub.com]
  • Since the development of cross-sectional imaging, congenital anomalies of the IVC and its tributaries have become more frequently encountered in asymptomatic patients (, 2 ).[pubs.rsna.org]
Lymphadenopathy
  • As with left IVC, misdiagnosis of the aberrant vessel as lymphadenopathy should be avoided. Azygos Continuation of the IVC Azygos continuation of the IVC has also been termed absence of the hepatic segment of the IVC with azygos continuation (, 7 ).[pubs.rsna.org]
Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism
  • Double IVC should be suspected in cases of recurrent pulmonary embolism following placement of an IVC filter (, 3 ). As with left IVC, misdiagnosis of the aberrant vessel as lymphadenopathy should be avoided.[pubs.rsna.org]
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
  • Patients with this anomaly may develop partial right ureteral obstruction or recurrent urinary tract infections. Therapeutic options include surgical relocation of the ureter anterior to the cava (, 3 ).[pubs.rsna.org]
Venous Insufficiency
  • Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:392-399. 6. Lee BB, Laredo J, Neville R.[phlebolymphology.org]
  • Patients with absent IVC may present with symptoms of lower-extremity venous insufficiency (, 16 –, 18 ) or idiopathic deep venous thrombosis (, 19,, 20 ). The collateral circulation may simulate a paraspinal mass (, 15 ).[pubs.rsna.org]
Suggestibility
  • We are unable to offer a more accurately descriptive term, but it must be realized that although these terms would suggest a ureteral anomaly it is actually a vascular abnormality.[jamanetwork.com]
  • These investigators suggested that there could be up to 14 theoretical variations in the anatomy of the infrarenal IVC. They noted that 11 of the 14 variants had been observed in the domestic cat or in humans.[pubs.rsna.org]

Workup

Mediastinal Mass
  • In both of these alternate pathways, the aberrant vessel may simulate a left mediastinal mass (, 9 ). In addition, with accessory hemiazygos continuation, the aberrant vessel may mimic an aortic dissection (, 10 ).[pubs.rsna.org]

Treatment

  • The treatment will be discussed in the light of the present exiguous literature and the reported cases[jamanetwork.com]
  • Surgical treatment of venous malformations in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. J Vasc Surg. 2000;32:840- 847.[phlebolymphology.org]

Etiology

  • Embryogenesis of the IVC To better understand the etiology of IVC and renal vein anomalies, a concise review of the embryogenesis of the IVC is warranted.[pubs.rsna.org]

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