Achondrogenesis (Hypochondrogenesis)

Achondrogenesis type I[1]

Achondrogenesis describes a rare group of lethal skeletal dysplasias. Currently, 3 variants have been defined: type 1A (Houston-Harris), type 1B (Parenti-Fraccaro), and type 2 (Langer-Saldino).

This disorder is related to the following process: congenital.

Presentation

In patients with achondrogenesis, prenatal history may include any of the following: Breech presentation, hydrops and polyhydraminos [8].

Presentation for achondrogenesis type I

  • There is lethal neonatal dwarfism with a mean birth weight of 1200 g.
  • Head is disproportionately large, the skull is soft, the forehead is sloping, the facial plane is convex, there is a flat nasal bridge and a host of other craniofacial defects.
  • The neck is extremely short.
  • There is lung hypoplasia and short and barrel-shaped thorax.
  • There is ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal defect.
  • The abdomen is protuberant.
  • Micromelia (extremely short limbs is noted) and it is shorter than what is seen in type II achondrogenesis. The appendages are flipper like as well.

Presentation for achondrogenesis type II

  • There is lethal neonathal dwarfism but the mean birth weight is 2100 g.
  • Craniofacial features include a large a head, very large forehead, flat facial plane, flat nasal bridge, small nose with a severely anteverted nostrils, there is normal philtrium in most cases as well as micrognathia. 
  • The neck is extremely short.
  • There is lung hypoplasia, bell shaped cage and a short and flared thorax.
  • Limbs are short.

musculoskeletal
Skeletal Dysplasia
  • Forms and Documents Test Details Genes: COL2A1, SLC26A2, TRIP11 Clinical Utility: Diagnosis in a patient based on clinical or radiographic findings suggestive of a skeletal dysplasia Diagnosis for known familial pathogenic variant(s) Distinguish between[genedx.com]
  • All types of achondrogenesis are very severe skeletal dysplasias usually detected by prenatal ultrasound examination as early as week 14-17 of gestational age.[webmd.com]
  • Achondrogenesis is a severe skeletal dysplasia that is invariably lethal before or after birth.[ctgt.net]
  • Fetal skeletal dysplasias, sonographic indices associated with adverse outcomes.[apjr.net]
  • The ultrasound findings of lethal skeletal dysplasia, with severe under-ossification of the vertebral bodies and normal hands, are diagnostic for this condition.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
Macrocephaly
  • Figure 2: Post mortem baby gram showing delayed ossification of sacral bones, short trunk, macrocephaly and extremely short long bones.[apjr.net]
  • Additional sonographic findings include: micrognathia macrocephaly frontal bossing flat face anteverted nares long philtrum narrow fetal thorax lung aplasia / hypoplasia rib fractures may be present in type 1A Other ancillary sonographic features that[radiopaedia.org]
Trunk Shortness
  • Macroscopical synopsis large head short trunk severe micromelia no ossification of vertebra, ischial and pubic bones severe micromelic dwarfism cleft palate cystic hygroma barrel-shaped chest short trunk short ribs horizontal ribs normal clavicles distended[humpath.com]
  • more...
  • respiratoric
  • more...
  • neurologic
  • more...
  • Entire body system
    Swelling
    • Because of the defect, GMAP-210 is not able to move the proteins, and they remain in the endoplasmic reticulum, which swells up.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • more...
  • Workup

    The molecular studies for achondrogenesis are performed on EDTA-anticoaagulated blood for DNA analysis [9].

    With mutation analysis of the DDST gene, the following is identified: point mutations, deletions leading to premature stop codons, substitutions and deletions of amino acids within transmembrane domains, presumed mutations lying outside the coding region but causing low mRNA levels and substitutions of amino acids in intracellular or extracellular domains.

    Radiological features often vary and no single feature is obligatory. It is not always possible to differentiate between type 1A and type 1B on radiographs. The degree is ossification is dependent of age and caution is needed radiograph comparisons at different stages of gestation.

    Bone and cartilage tissues should be obtained for use in histological and biochemical studies.

    Treatment

    There is presently no treatment for the underlying disorder and so medical care is supportive [10].

    Prognosis

    The outcome is often very negative. Majority of infants diagnosed with achondrogenesis are either stillborn or die shortly after birth due to the breathing problems that come with an abnormally small chest [7].

    Complications

    Skeletal Dysplasia
    • Forms and Documents Test Details Genes: COL2A1, SLC26A2, TRIP11 Clinical Utility: Diagnosis in a patient based on clinical or radiographic findings suggestive of a skeletal dysplasia Diagnosis for known familial pathogenic variant(s) Distinguish between[genedx.com]
    • All types of achondrogenesis are very severe skeletal dysplasias usually detected by prenatal ultrasound examination as early as week 14-17 of gestational age.[webmd.com]
    • Achondrogenesis is a severe skeletal dysplasia that is invariably lethal before or after birth.[ctgt.net]
    • Fetal skeletal dysplasias, sonographic indices associated with adverse outcomes.[apjr.net]
    • The ultrasound findings of lethal skeletal dysplasia, with severe under-ossification of the vertebral bodies and normal hands, are diagnostic for this condition.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
    Respiratory Failure
    • As a result of their serious health problems, infants with achondrogenesis are usually born prematurely , are stillborn , or die shortly after birth from respiratory failure.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • As a result of serious health problems, infants with achondrogenesis usually die before birth, are stillborn, or die soon after birth from respiratory failure.[onlymyhealth.com]
    • The health problems associated with these conditions are life-threatening and most affected infants are stillborn or die shortly after birth due to respiratory failure.[webmd.com]
    Edema
    • Redundant soft tissues with subcutaneous edema ( hydrops ).[fetalultrasound.com]
    • There was a large cystic hygroma measuring 5.4 4.7 2.7 cm, with marked generalised soft tissue edema.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
    • Langer-Saldino). ( 8375887 ) Reddeppa T....Divekar D.S. 1993 42 Collagen type II in Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis: absence of major abnormalities in a less severe case. ( 1515761 ) BAotge B....MA1ller P.K. 1992 43 Transvaginal ultrasound recognition of nuchal edema[malacards.org]
    • There was evidence of cystic hygroma and hydrops fetalis (extensive skin edema and mild plural effusion).[apjr.net]
    Stillbirth
    • Infants born with achondrogenesis have severe health problems thus they are born prematurely or as stillbirth .[symptoma.com]
    • Mortality/Morbidity: Achondrogenesis type I results in stillbirth more frequently than type II.[myvmc.com]
    • Increased incidence of prematurity and stillbirth.[mhmedical.com]
    • Mortality/Morbidity Achondrogenesis type I results in stillbirth more frequently than type II.[odlarmed.com]
    • Compared with type I, achondrogenesis type II is characterized by fewer stillbirths, longer survival, longer gestation period, less severe micromelia, a very peculiar crescent-shaped inner and inferior margins of the iliac bones, and characteristic craniofacial[rrnursingschool.biz]
    Achondrogenesis
    • Researchers have described at least three forms of achondrogenesis, designated as Achondrogenesis type 1A , achondrogenesis type 1B and achondrogenesis type 2 .[en.wikipedia.org]
    • . 2013 3 Cause of achondrogenesis type 1A. ( 20847198 ) 2010 4 Recurrence of achondrogenesis type 2 in sibs: Additional evidence for germline mosaicism. ( 20583175 ) Comstock J.M....Opitz J.M. 2010 5 Achondrogenesis type 1A--from mouse to human. ( 20089978[malacards.org]
    • What is Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Statistics on Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Risk Factors for Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Progression of Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis[myvmc.com]
    • Achondrogenesis Type 1B Achondrogenesis type 1B is similar to achondrogenesis type 1A, and can be differentiated on a genetic test.[onlymyhealth.com]
    • Prevalence and incidence statistics for Achondrogenesis: See also prevalence and incidence page for Achondrogenesis Prevalance of Achondrogenesis: 1 per 40,000 - 60,000 people are affected by achondrogenesis type 2 and hypochondrogenesis, Genetics Home[rightdiagnosis.com]
    Achondrogenesis Type 2
    • Home List of Disease Achondrogenesis type 2 Disease Name : Achondrogenesis type 2 Alternate Names : null Virus Name : will be updated soon Treatment : will be updated soon Description : Infants with achondrogenesis, type 2 have short arms and legs, a[livemedinfo.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type 2 is considered an autosomal dominant disorder.[onlymyhealth.com]
    • Achondrogenesis, type 2 is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI.[anatomybox.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type 2 is one of several skeletal disorders that result from mutations in the COL2A1 gene.[ghr.nlm.nih.gov]
    • Researchers have described at least three forms of achondrogenesis, designated as Achondrogenesis type 1A , achondrogenesis type 1B and achondrogenesis type 2 .[en.wikipedia.org]
    Polydactyly
    • […] replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage. ( 7829510 ) Chan D....Bateman J.F. 1995 34 Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report. ( 8798967 ) Swar M.O....Srikrishna B.V. 1995 35 Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly[malacards.org]
    • Lack of vertebral ossification is important as a means of differentiating achondrogenesis, of either type I or type II, from other lethal dysplasias with similar features,including short rib-polydactyly syndromes and thanatophoric dysplasia.[rrnursingschool.biz]

    Etiology

    The disorder is an inherited one which means it is passed down through families. Some of them are recessive meaning that both parents carry the defective gene and in such a situation, the chance of the subsequent child to be affected by the condition is about 25% [4].

    To differentiate them, type 1a is autosomal recessive disorder with a chromosomal locus that is unknown. Type 1b is an autosomal recessive disorder which arises from mutations of the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene found at 5q32-q33. Type 2 achondrogenesis on the other hand, is an autosomal dominant type 2 collagenopathy which arises from mutations in the COL2A1 gene. It is located at 12q13.1-q13.3.

    Epidemiology

    Types 1 and 2 lethal achondrogenesis are both rare. The respective frequencies are not known but the overall frequency has been placed at 1 per 40,000 births [2].

    With achondrogenesis type 1, the number of still births is higher than achondrogenesis type II. For babies who have achondrogenesis type 1 the gestation period is shorter and they survive for a shorter period than those who have type II. Their limbs are also much shorter and this buttresses the point that type 1 achondrogenesis is the more severe form.

    There is no racial predilection with achondrogenesis and males and females are affected equally. All cases of achondrogenesis are detected at birth and so there is no age difference.

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    In patients with achondrogenesis type 1B, a series of mutations in the DDST gene has been identified. Achondrogenesis type 1B is associated with the homozygosity and heterozygosity for these mutations. The mutation leads to structural mutations in the transmembrane domains and premature stop codons.
    Diastrophic dysplasia with less severe phenotypes or type II atelosteogenesis arises when regulatory mutation is caused by extracellular loops, low messenger RNA (mRNA levels) or cytoplasmic tail mutations. The skin fibroblasts and chondrocytes from patients with the type 1B are not able to incorporate exogenous sulfate when cultured [5].

    Type 2 achondrogenesis and other collagenopathies like spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias and hypochondrogensis are caused by different mutations in the gene which encodes type II collagen (COL2A1). Type 2 has a single base change serine is replaced by glycine within the procollagen gene of the alpha 1(II) chain. This brings about a disruption in the triple helix formation thereby leading to a paucity of type II collagen in the matrix of the cartilage. Apart from skeletal abnormalities, severe pulmonary hypoplasia which is believed to be related directly to the underlying pathology in the expression of collagen, is linked with achondrogenesis [6].

    The Whitely and Gorlin prototype 4 (type II achondrogenesis/hypochondrogenesis show immmunohistolgic findings which show an evident abnormal intracellular accumulation of type II collagen within vacuolar structures of chondrocytes. This suggests the presence of poorly secreted and abnormal collagen. The observed phenotype is as a result of the molecular defects of type II collagen and new dominant mutations.

    Prevention

    This condition can only be prevented with the help of accurate genetic counseling. For the genetic counseling to be effective however, the types of achondrogenesis in both parents must be properly established [11].

    Summary

    Achondrogensis is a collection of a number of disorders which are the severest forms of congenital chondrodysplasia. The major characteristics of the conditions are skeletal deformities usually depicted by shortened limbs and a generally small body. Infants born with achondrogenesis have severe health problems thus they are born prematurely or as stillbirth. Of the number that survives past the birth stage, majority die of respiratory problems. Some of the infants however, have gone on to live longer with the aid of intensive medical care [1].

    According to research, there are three forms of achondrogenesis. They are: achondrogeneis type 1A, achondrogenesis type 1B and achondrogenesis type 2. The various types are differentiated by the signs and symptoms, pattern of inheritance and genetic cause. There is possibility of the existence of other types of achondrogenesis but these have not been characterized as their cause has not been documented.

    Type 1A of achondrogenesis is caused when there is a defect in the microtubules of the Golgi apparatus. A nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210), showed defects that are similar to this disease in mice [3].

    Human patients with achondrogenesis type 1A also had a loss of function mutations in GMAP-210 when their DNA was sequenced. GMAP-210 is responsible for the movement of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus but with this defect, it is unable to do so and therefore the proteins remain in endoplasmic reticulum causing it to become swollen. With the loss of the Golgi apparatus, the functions of certain cells are affected but the cells affecting the formation of bones and cartilages are the most affected.

    A similar mutation in SLC26A2 (responsible for the encoding of a sulfate transporter) is what causes achondrogenesis type 1B.

    Patient Information

    This condition is often diagnosed at birth even when the child is stillbirth. This is where medical care comes in. As a parent of such a child however, you need to bear in mind that the chances of the child surviving beyond early infancy is very low. Therefore, effort must be put into ensuring that you are ready for whatever happens next by enrolling into a support group. Most importantly, your focus should be on ensuring that there is no repetition by going for genetic counseling and constant medical checks before and immediately after conception is confirmed.

    Other symptoms

    Birth
    • What is Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Statistics on Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Risk Factors for Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis) Progression of Developmental Bone Birth Defect (Achondrogenesis[myvmc.com]
    • Baby weighed 1810 gram and measured 31 centimeter; died within the first thirty minutes of birth.[commons.wikimedia.org]
    • Baby weighed 1810 grams and measured 31 centimeters; died within the first thirty minutes of birth.[en.academic.ru]
    • Achondrogenesis is a severe skeletal dysplasia that is invariably lethal before or after birth.[ctgt.net]
    No Abnormalities
    • […] cartilage bone junction, abnormal matrix Advertisement[pathologyoutlines.com]
    • All individuals carry several abnormal genes.[cigna.com]
    • All patients with the disease will be short, with abnormally proportioned limbs, trunk, and head.[checkorphan.org]
    • English [ edit ] Etymology [ edit ] a- ‎ chondrogenesis Noun [ edit ] Wikipedia has an article on: achondrogenesis Wikipedia achondrogenesis ( plural achondrogeneses ) A congenital defect characterised by a very short body, short limbs and skeletal abnormalities[en.wiktionary.org]
    • ICD-10-CM Codes › Q00-Q99 Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities › Q65-Q79 Congenital malformations and deformations of the musculoskeletal system › Q77- Osteochondrodysplasia with defects of growth of tubular bones and spine[icd10data.com]
    Lethal
    • Condition is lethal in perinatal period.[mhmedical.com]
    • Frequency United States Lethal achondrogenesis types I and II are both rare.[odlarmed.com]
    • Achondrogenesis is a severe skeletal dysplasia that is invariably lethal before or after birth.[ctgt.net]
    • Opsismodysplasia (OMIM 258480),a non-lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by marked delay in bone maturation, shows a high degree of ossification deficiency of the vertebral bodies and severe platyspondyly (Lachman 1997).[rrnursingschool.biz]
    • Lethality can be evaluated based on literature by thorax abdominal circumference ratio of [7] .[apjr.net]
    Achondrogenesis, Type 1A
    • Achondrogenesis type 1A is caused by a defect in the microtubules of the Golgi apparatus .[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Resources - Achondrogenesis type 1A[checkorphan.org]
    • Achondrogenesis type 1A by: Fuslie Coulange[prezi.com]
    • Achondrogenesis Type 1A The baby with achondrogenesis type 1A has a very soft skull bone and his/her limbs are short.[onlymyhealth.com]
    Congenital
    • […] malformations of spine, not associated with scoliosis Q76.6 Other congenital malformations of ribs Q76.7 Congenital malformation of sternum Q76.8 Other congenital malformations of bony thorax Q76.9 Congenital malformation of bony thorax, unspecified[icd10data.com]
    • […] navigation , search Contents 1 English 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Noun 1.2.1 Translations English [ edit ] Etymology [ edit ] a- ‎ chondrogenesis Noun [ edit ] Wikipedia has an article on: achondrogenesis Wikipedia achondrogenesis ( plural achondrogeneses ) A congenital[en.wiktionary.org]
    • Covers 20 new syndromes, including Perlman Syndrome, Cerebro-Costo-Mandibular Syndrome, Van der Woude Syndrome, Septo-Optic Dysplasia, Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (CHAOS), Cloacal[books.google.com]
    • Achondrogenesis is a number of disorders that are the most severe form of congenital chondrodysplasia (malformation of bones and cartilage ).[en.wikipedia.org]
    Achondrogenesis Type 1B
    • Researchers have described at least three forms of achondrogenesis, designated as Achondrogenesis type 1A , achondrogenesis type 1B and achondrogenesis type 2 .[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Achondrogenesis Type 1B Achondrogenesis type 1B is similar to achondrogenesis type 1A, and can be differentiated on a genetic test.[onlymyhealth.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type 1B Achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B) is a severe skeletal disease that is fatal either before or shortly after birth.[counsyl.com]
    • They are: achondrogeneis type 1A, achondrogenesis type 1B and achondrogenesis type 2 .[symptoma.com]
    Severe Disorder
    • A terrible disease that the Golgi Body causes is Achondrogenesis which is a group of severe disorders that affect cartilage and bone development.[organelleproblems.weebly.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type 1A Achondrogenesis type 1A is a severe disorder that are present from birth and affect the development of cartilage and bone in infants.[prezi.com]
    • Achondrogenesis is a group of severe disorders that are present from birth and affect the development of cartilage and bone.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
    • Achondrogenesis is a group of severe disorders that affect cartilage and bone development.[ghr.nlm.nih.gov]
    • The generalized joint dysplasia, including talipes equinovarus, abducted thumbs and great toes, and kyphoscoliosis, are features resembling those of diastrophic dysplasia, the least severe disorder caused by DTDST mutations (Rossi et al. 1996).[rrnursingschool.biz]
    Mutation in the Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interactor 11 Gene
    • In mice, a nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210), resulted in defects similar to the human disease.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • A nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210), showed defects that are similar to this disease in mice [3].[symptoma.com]
    Thyroiditis
    • In mice, a nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210), resulted in defects similar to the human disease.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • A nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210), showed defects that are similar to this disease in mice [3].[symptoma.com]
    Bone Dysplasia
    • Bone 8(3) :191-197 Spranger J (1988) Bone dysplasia 'families'.[vetbook.org]
    • dysplasia of all four limbs, micromelia, enlarged cranium, and a short trunk with delayed or absent ossification of the lower spine and pubic bones.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Bone Dysplasias: An Atlas of Genetic Disorders of Skeletal Development, 2nd Edition.[rarediseases.org]
    Caused by Mutation in the WAS Gene
    • Achondrogenesis type II ( ACG2 ; MIM 200610) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene.[ctgt.net]
    • Type II (80% of cases) is caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene, which results in significantly decreased type II collagen.[mhmedical.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type IA is caused by mutations in the TRIP11 gene.[cigna.com]
    • Achondrogenesis type 1B is the most severe of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene.[ghr.nlm.nih.gov]
    Infants Are Stillborn or Die Shortly after Birth
    • The health problems associated with these conditions are life-threatening and most affected infants are stillborn or die shortly after birth due to respiratory failure.[webmd.com]
    Micromelic Dwarfism
    • Macroscopical synopsis large head short trunk severe micromelia no ossification of vertebra, ischial and pubic bones severe micromelic dwarfism cleft palate cystic hygroma barrel-shaped chest short trunk short ribs horizontal ribs normal clavicles distended[humpath.com]
    Congenital Disorders
    • I also carry a couple of variants that can be tested for before conception and that might be relevant to my son should he have children -- one linked to type 1a achondrogenesis and one to type 1c congenital disorder of glycosylation.[medpagetoday.com]
    Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

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    References

    1. Sharma PP, Salihu HM, Oyelese Y, et al. Is race a determinant of stillbirth recurrence? Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107:391.
    2. Borochowitz Z, Lachman R, Adomian GE, Spear G, Jones K, Rimoin DL. Achondrogenesis type I: delineation of further heterogeneity and identification of two distinct subgroups. J Pediatr. Jan 1988;112(1):23-31.
    3. Lethal skeletal dysplasia in mice and humans lacking the GolginGMAP-210, Patrick Smits, N Engl J Med, 362:206, Jan. 21, 2010
    4. Fraccardo M. Contributo allo studio delle malattie del mesenchima osteopoietico: l achondrogenesi. Folia Hered Path. 1952;1:190-208.
    5. Whitley CB, Gorlin RJ. Achondrogenesis: new nosology with evidence of genetic heterogeneity. Radiology. Sep 1983;148(3):693-8.
    6. Mortier GR, Weis M, Nuytinck L, et al. Report of five novel and one recurrent COL2A1 mutations with analysis of genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with a lethal type II collagen disorder. J Med Genet. Apr 2000;37(4):263-71.
    7. Spranger J, Winterpacht A, Zabel B. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias. Eur J Pediatr. Feb 1994;153(2):56-65.
    8. Freisinger P, Bonaventure J, Stoess H, Pontz BF, Emmrich P, Nerlich A. Type II collagenopathies: are there additional family members?. Am J Med Genet. May 3 1996;63(1):137-43
    9. Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network Writing Group. Association between stillbirth and risk factors known at pregnancy confirmation. JAMA 2011; 306:2469.
    10. Wigglesworth JS. Monitoring perinatal mortality. A pathophysiological approach. Lancet 1980; 2:684.
    11. Hall JG. Review and hypotheses: somatic mosaicism: observations related to clinical genetics. Am J Hum Genet. Oct 1988;43(4):355-63

    • A case of lethal congenital dwarfism with accelerated skeletal maturation - S Blomstrand, I Claësson, J Säve-Söderbergh - Pediatric radiology, 1985 - Springer
    • Achondrogenesis type II (Langer–Saldino) in association with jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence - KD Wenstrom, RA Williamson, WW Hoover - Prenatal , 1989 - Wiley Online Library
    • A Case of Recurrent Craniopharyngioma - G Gayen, NC Mahapatra - 30th WB State PEDICON 2011, 2011 - iapwb.in
    • A severe autosomal recessive acromesomelic dysplasia, the Hunter-Thompson type, and comparison with the Grebe type - LO Langer, J Cervenka, M Camargo - Human genetics, 1989 - Springer
    • A genetic approach to the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia - S Unger - Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 2002 - journals.lww.com

    Media References

    1. Achondrogenesis type I, CC BY 2.0

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