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Acid Ingestion


Presentation

  • Abstract Twelve cases of Reye's syndrome are presented with different degrees of encephalopathy, hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia; associated to acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) ingestion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Severe acidemia and hypocalcemia were present, which resulted in refractory asystole. A plasma fluoride determination showed an extremely high fluoride level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No clinical symptoms relating to ingestion and swallowing were present in the early period after ingestion but patients developed vomitting and cachexia a few months later.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The case history and biological fluid concentrations of chromium are presented and discussed. Previous cases of acute chromium intoxication are reviewed and recommendations for the management of such patients are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this report, the authors present their experience with the treatment of acid-induced GOO in children. METHODS: The records of patients admitted for unintentional ingestion of corrosive agents between 1980 and 2002 were reviewed retrospectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gastric Lavage
  • Two of these cases were initially treated in provincial hospitals by gastric lavages.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Immediately, gastric lavage, followed by administration of activated charcoal and laxative (MgSO4), was performed. In order to ensure her urination, fluid infusion therapy was conducted with the aid of diuretics (furosemide).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • lavage is contraindicated in corrosive acid poisoning like sulfuric acid poisoning.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Gastric lavage by traditional methods using large-bore orogastric Ewald tubes are contraindicated in both acidic and alkaline ingestions because of risk of esophageal perforation and tracheal aspiration of stomach contents.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • lavage or insert an nasogastric tube (until endoscopy is performed) Enhanced Elimination and Antidotes nil Disposition if asymptomatic at 4 hours post-ingestion - perform a trial of oral fluids and discharge if well tolerated (avoid discharging a child[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Wound Infection
  • The complications were wound infection in 1 and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in another in the early postoperative period. Mean follow-up is 8.33 /- 4.45 (4.8-18.7) years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula following chemical injury is well reported. 3 Such patients present with cough after swallowing, which is usually worse with liquids.[japi.org]
  • Coughing up blood Dizziness Low blood pressure Rapid pulse Shortness of breath Symptoms from skin or eye contact may include: Skin burning, drainage, and pain Eye burning, drainage, and pain Vision loss DO NOT make a person throw up.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Airway burns may cause coughing, tachypnea, or stridor. Swollen, erythematous tissue may be visible intraorally; however, caustic liquids may cause no intraoral burns despite serious injury farther down the GI tract.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Symptoms include hoarseness, food getting stuck, burning, irritation, nausea, coughing, wheezing, asthma symptoms and eroded tooth enamel. It also increases your odds of esophageal cancer.[mnn.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • We present the case of a 20 year old male with suicidal ingestion of Harpic, who presented with severe abdominal pain and signs of generalised peritonitis.[eprints.manipal.edu]
  • Symptoms include burns to the skin and throat, abdominal pain, convulsions and tremors or even collapse. It's is advisable for the patient to drink plenty of fluids and seek medical assistance.[healamed.com]
  • pain and peritoneal signs: immediate CXR and abdominal x-ray to r/o intraperitoneal or mediastinal air Substernal chest pain, abdominal pain, rigidity indicate profound injury or perforation of esophagus/stomach Signs of perforated viscus, peritonitis[mhmedical.com]
  • pain Upper airway injury is the most important immediate life-threat.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Vomiting Retching (gagging) Abdominal pain Low-grade fever Irritability Persistent drooling Difficulty breathing if the battery is blocking the airway Rash from nickel metal allergy Dark or bloody stools Although mercury-containing cells tend to fragment[emedicinehealth.com]
Odynophagia
  • If pediatric ingestion, parents should bring container of caustic ingested for correct identification Symptoms: Hoarseness, stridor, dyspnea indicate airway injury Odynophagia, drooling, refusal of food indicate orophayngeal/nasophayngeal and esophageal[mhmedical.com]
  • […] permangante — methemoglobinemia, multi-organ failure silver nitrate — methemoglobinemia tannic acid — hepatotoxicity CLINICAL FEATURES Corrosive ingestion may result in immediate symptoms of injury to the gastrointestinal tract: mouth and throat pain drooling odynophagia[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Choking
  • Well, you could choke, your stomach acid will erode your esophagus, the substance you swallowed could be harmful to your lungs or esophagus, and you’ll become severely dehydrated, which could actually be worse for you than the poison you ingested.[txfx.net]
  • […] blood pressure (shock) Severe pain in the mouth and throat Speech problems Vomiting, with blood Vision loss Symptoms from breathing in the poison may include: Bluish skin, lips, and fingernails Breathing difficulty Body weakness Chest pain (tightness) Choking[medlineplus.gov]
Gagging
  • Vomiting Retching (gagging) Abdominal pain Low-grade fever Irritability Persistent drooling Difficulty breathing if the battery is blocking the airway Rash from nickel metal allergy Dark or bloody stools Although mercury-containing cells tend to fragment[emedicinehealth.com]
Black Stools
  • Speak to your healthcare professional if you experience: 01 Frequent vomiting 02 Blood in vomit 03 Weight loss or loss of appetite 04 Black stools 05 Difficult or painful swallowing 06 Shortness of breath, sweating or pain that radiates from the jaw,[rolaids.com]
Chest Pain
  • She complained about chest pain and 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation at lead II, III, and aVF.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • pain, abdominal pain, rigidity indicate profound injury or perforation of esophagus/stomach Signs of perforated viscus, peritonitis, mediastinitis, or hemodynamic instability: immediate surgical evaluation Criteria for emergent surgery: Presence of shock[mhmedical.com]
  • Esophageal perforation may result in mediastinitis, with severe chest pain, tachycardia, fever, tachypnea, and shock. Gastric perforation may result in peritonitis.[merckmanuals.com]
  • pain (tightness) Choking Coughing Coughing up blood Dizziness Low blood pressure Rapid pulse Shortness of breath Symptoms from skin or eye contact may include: Skin burning, drainage, and pain Eye burning, drainage, and pain Vision loss DO NOT make a[medlineplus.gov]
  • Most cases of chest pain, called heartburn, are nothing more than acid indigestion that can be helped by taking charcoal. A slurry of charcoal and water, or a little olive oil and charcoal mixed together, is often all that is needed.[charcoalremedies.com]
Tachycardia
  • Symptoms included lethargy (n 94), coma (n 19), tachycardia (n 24), aspiration (n 8), metabolic acidosis (n 8), and hypotension (n 4).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] oxygen patients Pediatr percent perfusion plasma platelet poisoning present preterm pulmonary renal failure respiratory distress respiratory failure resuscitation risk seizures sepsis septic shock serum severe shock sodium stridor symptoms syndrome Table tachycardia[books.google.de]
  • Tachycardia, tachypnoea. Shock may occur in major ingestions Stage 3: Renal Toxicity At 24-72 hrs post-ingestion Acute anuric renal failure may occur due to precipitation of calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules.[anaesthesiamcq.com]
  • Esophageal perforation may result in mediastinitis, with severe chest pain, tachycardia, fever, tachypnea, and shock. Gastric perforation may result in peritonitis.[merckmanuals.com]
Hypotension
  • Symptoms included lethargy (n 94), coma (n 19), tachycardia (n 24), aspiration (n 8), metabolic acidosis (n 8), and hypotension (n 4).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] dehydration diagnosis diarrhea disease disorders dose drug dysfunction edema effects electrolyte emergency etiology evaluation factors fever fluid glucose heart failure hematuria hemolysis hemorrhage hypertension hypoglycemia hypokalemia hyponatremia hypotension[books.google.de]

Treatment

  • It was concluded that the hemodialysis was very useful in the treatment of boric acid poisoning, because it accelerated the elimination of boric acid about four times faster than with conventional treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of GOO with gastrojejunostomy gives good long-term results in children. This procedure is safe and causes minimal morbidity particularly in patients without extensive gastric damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction is usually possible and is the treatment of choice. Total parenteral nutrition is a useful adjunct.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With high n-3 PUFA ingestion, alterations in urinary 5-series leukotriene excretion predicted treatment efficacy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Endoscopic dilatation, which has been found to be quite safe and effective in the treatment of benign oesophageal strictures of other aetiology, has also not been evaluated adequately in the treatment of these strictures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Battery Ingestion Complications and Prognosis For the majority of cases of disk battery ingestion, conservative therapy is all that is needed. The battery will pass on its own. A disk battery lodged in the esophagus is rare.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • […] bilirubin bleeding blood pressure bradycardia cardiac cause cells cerebral chest child Clin clinical coagulation congenital cyanosis decreased dehydration diagnosis diarrhea disease disorders dose drug dysfunction edema effects electrolyte emergency etiology[books.google.de]

Epidemiology

  • Waugh 595 Activities Toward Dental Decay Prevention in Japan 605 The Relation of Carbohydrate to Lactobacillus acidophilus 613 The Dental Health of the People of New Zealand 621 Our Present Knowledge of the Relationship of Salivary Composi 631 Some Epidemiological[books.google.de]
  • Clinical-epidemiological characteristics in caustics ingestion patients in the Hipolito Unanue National Hospital. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2003; 23(2):115-25. Corsi PR, Hoyos MB, Rassian S, Viana Ade T, Gagliardi D.[x-unnec-med-practice.tripod.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This dynamic pathophysiologic event imposes postponement of surgical intervention because of various time length between ingestion of acid and onset of gastric outlet obstruction (17 days to 5 years).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The legal issues concerning suicide in a patient with mental illness, autopsy findings, forensic issues, and pathophysiology concerning death by acid ingestion have been discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiological and aetiological considerations Alkali ingestion Alkaline substances are easier to swallow, as it hurts less than acid (they are a more common tool of suicide) Alkaline material mainly damages the oesophagus, as the stomach contains[derangedphysiology.com]

Prevention

  • Recommendations are made for diagnosis and prevention of this potentially lethal complication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recurrent ventricular fibrillation with concurrent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia complicated her first episode, whereas a more aggressive administration of calcium and magnesium may have prevented dysrhythmias in the second episode.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ingestion of nicotinic acid (WP NA and CE NA) blunted the rise in FFA associated with WP and CE; in fact, NA ingestion effectively prevented FFA from rising above rest values.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Changing current dietary practices toward increasing ingestion of EAAs provides an approach that can potentially prevent loss of lean body tissue and ultimately achieve a more sustained level of health in patients who have undergone gastric bypass.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These data emphasize the potential importance of adequate postexercise Leu ingestion to enhance the response of aging muscle to preventive or therapeutic exercise-based rehabilitation programs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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