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Acquired Hemolytic Anemia


Presentation

  • The present case is significant because of the paucity of previously described focal intra-abdominal infections caused by L. monocytogenes, particularly as a postsplenectomy pathogen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Absent (may be present with severe extravascular hemolysis) Hemoglobinuria Present Absent Urine hemosiderin Present Absent Hemopexin-heme Present Absent (may be present with severe extravascular hemolysis) Methemalbumin Present Absent Morphology Schistocytes[clinicalgate.com]
  • The case is described of a 9-month-old infant with congenital HIV-1 infection who presented with severe autoimmune hemolysis and a high cytomegalovirus viral plasma load.[link.springer.com]
  • In contrast, anti-nl, anti-pdl and anti-dl autoantibodies were frequently present in the red cell eluates.[jimmunol.org]
  • The tendency toward spherocytosis as measured by increased osmotic fragility may or may not be present in acquired hemolytic anemia.[bloodjournal.org]
HELLP Syndrome
  • […] plant poisons such as aesculin) Trauma Mechanical (from heart valves, extensive vascular surgery, microvascular disease, repeated mechanical vascular trauma) Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (a specific subtype with causes such as TTP, HUS, DIC and HELLP[en.wikipedia.org]
  • SYNDROME HEMOLYSIS ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES LOW PLATLET COUNTS 62 HELLP SYNDROME 1 IN 1OOO PREGNANCIES SEEN IN PRESENCE OF ECLAMPSIA, PREECLAMPSIA, AND PLACENTAL ABRUPTION MAY EXTEND UP TO 6 DAYS POSTPARTUM 63 HELLP SYNDROME RUQ AND EPIGASTRIC PAIN – SEEN[slideplayer.com]
  • […] plant poisons such as aesculin ) Trauma Mechanical (from heart valves, extensive vascular surgery, microvascular disease, repeated mechanical vascular trauma) Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (a specific subtype with causes such as TTP, HUS, DIC and HELLP[ipfs.io]
  • syndrome (named for its characteristics, which include hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) In some instances, hemolytic anemia is the result of taking certain medications.[healthline.com]
Abdominal Fullness
  • When destruction persists for a few months or longer, the spleen may enlarge, resulting in a sense of abdominal fullness and, occasionally, discomfort. In people with cold antibody hemolytic anemia, the hands and feet may be cold or bluish.[merckmanuals.com]
Epigastric Pain
  • PAIN – SEEN IN 90% OF PTS (POSSIBLE HEPATIC RUPTURE) DX BASED ON LAB DATA DECREASED SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL MOST SENSITIVE 64 HELLP SYNDROME - TX PROMPT DELIVERY OF INFANT SUPPORTIVE CARE FOR SEIZURES AND HTN CRISIS STEROIDS MAY HELP FETAL LUNGS, BUT[slideplayer.com]
Swelling of Hand
  • […] of hands and feet) Heart Enlargement Growth Retardation Delayed Sexual Development 29 Dactylitis 30 Sickle Cell Crisis Severe pain caused by blocked blood flow Triggered by Infection, Dehydration, Fatigue, or Emotional Stress Can last up to 5 days 31[slideplayer.com]

Workup

Anisopoikilocytosis
  • Blood smear anisopoikilocytosis, spherocytes erythroblasts schistocytes 3. Bone marrow smear erythroid hyperplasia 78 Diagnosis of hemolytic syndrome: 1. Anemia 2.[slideplayer.com]
  • A blood smear showed anisopoikilocytosis and spherocytosis. DAT was positive (titre 1:250). Serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration was 1314 U/l.[fn.bmj.com]
Listeria Monocytogenes
  • We report a case of an intra-abdominal abscess caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a postoperative patient with Evans syndrome (acquired hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bone Marrow with Erythroid Hyperplasia
  • Bone marrow smear erythroid hyperplasia 78 Diagnosis of hemolytic syndrome: 1. Anemia 2.[slideplayer.com]

Treatment

  • Reticulocytosis 3 Diagnosis of hemolytic syndrome: Anemia Reticulocytosis Indirect hyperbilirubinemia 79 Autoimmune hemolytic anemia - diagnosis positive Coombs’ test Treatment: steroids splenectomy immunosupressive agents transfusion[slideplayer.com]
  • If your AIHA is mild, you may not need any treatment at all. Doctors usually first prescribe steroids, such as hydrocortisone or prednisone, to stop your immune system from attacking your red blood cells.[webmd.com]
  • Combined treatment with steroids and cyclosporin was necessary to improve haemolysis and reduce the high transfusion requirements. Treatment was discontinued at 13 months of age.[fn.bmj.com]
  • If no response to corticosteroids is observed by the end of the first 3 weeks, continued therapy as sole treatment is usually ineffective.[clinicalgate.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis depends on the underlying condition. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • Synonyms and Keywords: Haemolytic anaemia Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Screening Differentiating Hemolytic anemia from other Diseases Natural History, Complications and Prognosis[wikidoc.org]
  • Hemoglobin Increased retic count White cell count increased WBC shift to the left 36 37 Hgb Electrophoresis Amino acids in globin chains have different charges Separates hemoglobin according to charge 90% Hgb S, 10% Hgb F, small fraction of Hgb A2 38 39 Prognosis[slideplayer.com]
  • Treatments and Prognosis for Hemolytic Anemia Doctors who treat hemolytic anemia will first focus on returning the patient's red blood cell count to as close to normal as possible and halting or slowing the destruction of red blood cells.[everydayhealth.com]
  • […] features Pallor, fatigue, weakness Cyanosis of the extremities ( acrocyanosis ) Diagnosis Signs of hemolysis Peripheral blood smear : spherocytes, polychromasia Coombs test : positive Cold agglutinins titer C3 and C4 ; (due to complement activation) Prognosis[amboss.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • In many cases, a fundamental pathologic process such as lymphosarcoma or leukemia can be found (symptomatic 1 2 3 or secondary types), but most of the cases have no well defined etiology — that is, they are "idiopathic."[nejm.org]
  • The occurrence of definite and sustained leukopenia with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in several patients with hemolytic disease due to an immune body agent raises questions as to the etiology of classic thrombocytopenic purpura and of splenic neutropenia[bloodjournal.org]
  • Enzyme defects Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Pyruvate kinase deficiency Pathophysiology : autosomal recessive defect of pyruvate kinase Etiology : : Glucose is the only energy source for RBCs.[amboss.com]
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis Overview Taken together, AIHA represents the most common cause of acquired hemolytic anemia; however, a number of distinct insults can trigger generation of these anti-erythrocyte antibodies.[pathwaymedicine.org]

Epidemiology

  • Summary Epidemiology Warm auto-antibodies are responsible for 60/70% of AIHA, whose annual incidence is estimated to be between 1/35,000-1/80,000 in North America and Western Europe.[orpha.net]
  • ., M.D. [1] Shyam Patel [2] Synonyms and Keywords: Haemolytic anaemia Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Screening Differentiating Hemolytic anemia from other Diseases Natural[wikidoc.org]
  • Epidemiology Risk factors are variable and depend on the underlying cause.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Enzyme defects Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Pyruvate kinase deficiency Pathophysiology : autosomal recessive defect of pyruvate kinase Etiology : : Glucose is the only energy source for RBCs.[amboss.com]
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Discuss the molecular and pathophysiologic defects in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and explain the test used to diagnose this disorder. List complications of PNH.[hematology.org]
  • ., M.D. [1] Shyam Patel [2] Synonyms and Keywords: Haemolytic anaemia Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Screening Differentiating Hemolytic anemia from other Diseases Natural[wikidoc.org]
  • Pathophysiology - red cell membrane protein defects (spectrin deficiency) resulting cytoskeleton instability 2. Familly history 3. Clinical features - splenomegaly 4.[slideplayer.com]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Hemolytic anemia (HA) is characterized by increased red cell destruction and a decreased red cell life span.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]

Prevention

  • Author affiliations Departments of Preventive Medicine and Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.[karger.com]
  • Laboratory features - hemolytic anemia - blood smear-microspherocytes abnormal osmotic fragility test positive autohemolysis test prevention of increased autohemolysis by including glucose in incubation medium 5.[slideplayer.com]
  • Prevention It is not possible to prevent some types of AIHA, but doctors can monitor people who have a viral infection or who use certain medications, to ensure that AIHA does not develop.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Complications and Prognosis Diagnosis History and Symptoms Physical Examination Laboratory Findings X Ray CT Scan MRI Scan Echocardiography or Ultrasound Imaging Findings Other imaging findings Other Diagnostic Studies Treatment Medical therapy Surgery Primary Prevention[wikidoc.org]

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