Question 1 of 10

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

    Red Ribbon[1]

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is considered to be the most severe stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is life-threatening if therapy is not initiated immediately. Patients present with constitutional symptoms of variable severity, wasting, and numerous AIDS-defining illnesses. Clinical and laboratory criteria, especially a very low CD4+T-cell count, are used to make the diagnosis.

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is caused by the following process: infectious.

    Presentation

    AIDS occurs in patients who suffer from a severe and long unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (caused by either HIV-1 or HIV-2 virus) [1] [2] [3]. AIDS is almost never encountered in patients with an acute HIV infection, but rather develops after the period of latency and progressive decrease in CD4+T-cell function [4] [5]. One of the most important risk factors is the lack of treatment, mostly because of a missed (or unknown) diagnosis. The progressive nature of HIV infection symptoms and infections have been grouped into two diagnostic criteria devised by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As per CDC criteria, three distinct categories exist - A, B, and C, with A describing features of acute or asymptomatic HIV infection [2] [6]. On the other hand, categories B and C (similarly to clinical stages 2,3 and 4 of WHO criteria) include the appearance of AIDS-related conditions. Constitutional symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or diarrhea lasting for at least one month, peripheral neuropathy and numerous infections - Listeriosis, Bacillary angiomatosis, recurrent herpes zoster involving > 1 dermatome and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are initial signs of AIDS [1] [2] [3] [6] [7]. Candidiasis, however, is the most important group B feature of patients with suspected HIV or AIDS and can present in the oropharynx or the genitalia. Additional disorders that belong to the B category are immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), cervical dysplasia (or cervical carcinoma in situ) and oral hairy leukoplakia. When patients present with profound weight loss and poor general condition due to "wasting syndrome" caused by HIV, they are adequately classified into category C and clinical stage 4, respectively, and signs of severe AIDS include [1] [2] [3] [6] [7]:

    Jaw & Teeth
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  • Entire body system
    Anemia
    • Spleen removal may be necessary because of conditions like cirrhosis of the liver, sickle cell anemia, or trauma to the spleen.[healthline.com]
    • Bacterial infection that can cause persistent fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, abdominal pain, dizziness, diarrhea and weakness.[conservapedia.com]
    • Medicines may be prescribed to treat problems related to AIDS such as anemia , low white cell count, and to prevent opportunistic infections.[nytimes.com]
    • When the CD4 drops below 50, a widespread body infection may occur causing symptoms such as fever, night sweats, diarrhea, anemia, hepatitis, and sepsis Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (a type of cancer involving white blood cell lymphocytes and the lymph node[dovemed.com]
    Fatigue
    • Symptoms may include night sweats and fatigue, fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss.[conservapedia.com]
    • HIV in infants and children may include: Failure to thrive or failure to gain weight or grow Oral thrush or severe diaper rash Pneumonia Diarrhea Ear infections Colds Symptoms of HIV in adolescents may include: Headache Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Fatigue[iuhealth.org]
    • Eventually most patients infected with HIV experience a syndrome of symptoms that includes excessive fatigue , weight loss , and/or skin rashes .[webmd.com]
    • These may include dyspnea, nutritional wasting, fatigue, pain, and incontinence.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Each class of ARVs has different side effects, but some possible common side effects may include nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, skin rashes, or moodiness.[medicalnewstoday.com]
    Fever
    • Symptoms include confusion or delusional behavior, severe headaches, fever, seizures and coma.[conservapedia.com]
    • Without treatment, a person might experience fevers, night sweats, diarrhea or swollen lymph nodes for several weeks.[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • Such individuals present with weight loss, fever, night sweats, cough, sputum production, coughing-up blood, etc.[dovemed.com]
    • If your child has frequent infections, chronic skin rashes, swollen glands and/or fever, contact his or her doctor.[iuhealth.org]
    • AIDS-related conditions, of whom 430,000 million were children under 15 years 2.7 million people became newly infected with HIV Following infection with the HIV virus, individuals experience a nonspecific, flu-like seroconversion illness, manifesting as fever[radiopaedia.org]
    Infectious Mononucleosis
    • Because common conditions like cancer or other viral conditions like infectious mononucleosis also can cause weight loss and fatigue , it is sometimes easy for a physician to overlook the possibility of HIV/AIDS .[medicinenet.com]
    Malaise
    • […] children under 15 years 2.7 million people became newly infected with HIV Following infection with the HIV virus, individuals experience a nonspecific, flu-like seroconversion illness, manifesting as fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, skin rash and malaise[radiopaedia.org]
    • Common side effects are: Collection of fat on the back (buffalo hump) and abdomen Diarrhea General sick feeling ( malaise) Headache Nausea Weakness When used for a long time, these drugs increase the risk of heart attack, perhaps by increasing the levels[nytimes.com]
    • Examination Patients with immunodeficiency often look ill on presentation, with pale skin, general malaise, cachexia and a distended abdomen.[patient.info]
    Prostitute
    • Early 1900s colonial cities were notable due to their high prevalence of prostitution and genital ulcers, to the degree that, as of 1928, as many as 45% of female residents of eastern Kinshasa were thought to have been prostitutes, and, as of 1933, around[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Currently, most new infections worldwide are spread by promiscuous heterosexual sex and prostitution.[conservapedia.com]
    • A small number of participants (67 or 2.4%) engaged reported promiscuous sexual behavior with both prostitutes and other sexual partners.[bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com]
    • In addition, studies have identified the importance of migrant labor in the creation of markets for prostitution ( 134 ).[epirev.oxfordjournals.org]
    Recurrent Infection
    • […] part of the eye, including the iris ; disease of the eye in which the pressure within the eye is increased ( glaucoma ) Long-term (chronic) kidney insufficiency Persistent diarrhea seen in 10 percent to 20 percent of cases Long-term, nonresponsive, or recurrent[petmd.com]
    • A systematic review called for screening in patients with recurrent infections, irrespective of age. [ 17 ] An elevated ESR may indicate chronic infection and CXR and sinus X-ray may confirm the source.[patient.info]
    Reiter's Syndrome
    • […] connective tissue disorders, characterized by generalized digital cyanosis, localized painful vasculitic lesions of dorsal forefoot (30% of cases) and apices of toes (20-25% of cases); subcutaneous calcinosis (20% of cases) may masquerade as a seed corn Reiter's[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Social Isolation
    • This includes having regular dental checks and their own accommodation. [ 19 ] There may be an element of social isolation and psychological issues may need to be addressed.[patient.info]
    • Unemployment in people with HIV/AIDS also is associated with suicidal ideation, memory problems, and social isolation; employment increases self-esteem, sense of dignity, confidence, and quality of life.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Direct mechanisms are those that increase the likelihood of a person coming into contact with someone who is HIV positive, for example, through residential segregation and the social isolation of marginalized populations.[epirev.oxfordjournals.org]
    Unsafe Sexual Practices
    • Google Scholar S-gM W, Gao MY: Employment and contextual impact of safe and unsafe sexual practices for STI and HIV: the situation in China.[bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com]
    Weight Loss
    • Weight loss of 10 percent premorbid body weight.[clinicaltrials.gov]
    • The first symptoms of the illness are generally night sweats, weight loss, and oral thrush.[conservapedia.com]
    • loss and brain tumors.[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • The symptoms of early HIV infection may include: fever chills joint pain muscle aches sore throat sweats (particularly at night) enlarged glands a red rash tiredness weakness unintentional weight loss Asymptomatic HIV In many cases, after the initial[medicalnewstoday.com]
    • Eventually most patients infected with HIV experience a syndrome of symptoms that includes excessive fatigue , weight loss , and/or skin rashes .[webmd.com]
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  • Immune System
    Generalized Lymphadenopathy
    • Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea.[fpnotebook.com]
    • In some patients, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy is an outward sign of infection.[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • In some patients, generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, dementia, or chronic diarrhea occurs much earlier in the course of the infection.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Between 50 and 70% of people also develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, characterized by unexplained, non-painful enlargement of more than one group of lymph nodes (other than in the groin) for over three to six months.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • "Persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy among homosexual males" .[en.wikipedia.org]
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  • Skin
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  • respiratoric
    Chronic Cough
    • There may be a chronic cough with crepitations in both lungs.[patient.info]
    Cough
    • Symptoms may include night sweats and fatigue, fever, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss.[conservapedia.com]
    • Such individuals present with weight loss, fever, night sweats, cough, sputum production, coughing-up blood, etc.[dovemed.com]
    • Symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include: blurred vision diarrhea , which is usually persistent or chronic dry cough fever of above 100 F (37 C) lasting for weeks night sweats permanent tiredness shortness of breath (dyspnea) swollen glands lasting[medicalnewstoday.com]
    • The most frequent clinical findings in patients with pneumonia are acute onset of fever, non-productive cough, and dyspnea.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • There may be a chronic cough with crepitations in both lungs.[patient.info]
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  • gastrointestinal
    Chronic Diarrhea
    • If left untreated, HIV can lead to infections such as pneumonia , chronic diarrhea, skin rashes, serious infections and failure to grow.[iuhealth.org]
    • diarrhea (over 1 month), diagnosed by histology or stool microscopy; (3) bronchial or pulmonary candidiasis, diagnosed by microscopy or by presence of characteristic white plaques grossly on the bronchial mucosa (not by culture alone); (4) non-Hodgkin's[cdc.gov]
    • Symptoms include generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea.[fpnotebook.com]
    • The patient had a history of chronic diarrhea, progressive dyspnea and loss of approximately 20kg in eight months.[scielo.br]
    • Stage III: Advanced symptoms which may include unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections including tuberculosis of the lung, and a CD4 count of less than 350/µl.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Diarrhea
    • Symptoms of HIV in infants and children may include: Failure to thrive or failure to gain weight or grow Oral thrush or severe diaper rash Pneumonia Diarrhea Ear infections Colds Symptoms of HIV in adolescents may include: Headache Diarrhea Nausea and[iuhealth.org]
    • It can be associated with unpleasant side effects (diarrhea, nausea, and headache ).[medicalnewstoday.com]
    • Common presentations include headache, fits, altered mental status, or paralysis Cryptosporidium diarrhea, which is marked by the presence of extreme watery-diarrhea and caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium.[dovemed.com]
    • Without treatment, a person might experience fevers, night sweats, diarrhea or swollen lymph nodes for several weeks.[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • Back to Top Symptoms Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) are often flu-like: Diarrhea Fever Headache Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush) Muscle stiffness or aching Night sweats Rashes of different types[nytimes.com]
    Failure to Thrive
    • Symptoms of HIV in infants and children may include: Failure to thrive or failure to gain weight or grow Oral thrush or severe diaper rash Pneumonia Diarrhea Ear infections Colds Symptoms of HIV in adolescents may include: Headache Diarrhea Nausea and[iuhealth.org]
    • Common gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhoea, malabsorption and failure to thrive or losing weight.[patient.info]
    • As the disease progresses, characteristics are a general failure to thrive, anergy, and any of a variety of recurring infections, most commonly Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, meningitis, and encephalitis caused by aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Loss of Appetite
    • […] of appetite, leading to a disproportionate loss of strength in different muscles in the body The CD4 lymphocyte count predicts the type of opportunistic infections and cancers an HIV-infected individual can develop as the count decreases Sometimes, an[dovemed.com]
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  • urogenital
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  • Ears
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  • Workup

    Because many disorders are a part of the clinical presentation of AIDS, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion when any of the mentioned illnesses or infections appear together with a poor general condition. For this reason, a comprehensive workup is necessary to rule out HIV infection and AIDS as a possible cause [2]. Firstly, a detailed patient history must include assessment of potential risk factors such as unprotected sexual intercourse, particularly male homosexual (as the vast majority of patients in the developed world are males belonging to the men having sex with men - MSM population), contact with blood products (through intravenous drug use) or a positive family history in the setting of vertical transmission [2] [6] [7]. Moreover, the appearance of any of the infections (or their respective signs and symptoms) in recent months should be noted, and a detailed and complete physical examination may confirm cutaneous, pulmonary, or general manifestations of AIDS and warrant a laboratory investigation to diagnose the clinical entity. A neurological exam (including the mini-mental status examination) must be carried out in all patients suspected to have severe HIV infection, in order to assess the extent of neurological involvement and detect AIDS-related dementia. In addition to a complete blood count (CBC), which will show lymphopenia in virtually all patients, an extensive biochemical panel is necessary to evaluate organ status - lipid profile, liver and kidney function, and a full electrolyte panel [2] [3] [7]. If the diagnosis of HIV is not already known, testing for HIV antibodies is the first step in confirming this infection, followed by a CD4+T-cell count and isolation of viral RNA through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Classification of patients harboring an HIV infection, supplementary to clinical criteria, is based on the CD4+T-cell count as well, and a number of < 200/µL is diagnostic for AIDS [2]. Additional recommended procedures include syphilis testing with the Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests, detection of anti-toxoplasma antibodies, purified protein derivative (PPD) test for tuberculosis, and determine possible coinfection by hepatitis viruses (A, B, or C) [3] [6] [7].

    Test Results

    Esophagoscopy
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  • Skin Test
    Anergy
    • As the disease progresses, characteristics are a general failure to thrive, anergy, and any of a variety of recurring infections, most commonly Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, meningitis, and encephalitis caused by aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
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  • Laboratory

    Serum
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  • Imaging

    X-ray
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  • Treatment

    Prognosis

    Complications

    AIDS Dementia Complex
    • • Twenty-nine patients at risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions characteristic of the AIDS dementia complex, either preceding or in the absence of major systemic opportunistic[archneur.jamanetwork.com]
    • Cancers (malignant neoplasms), and a wide variety of neurological abnormalities, most notably the AIDS dementia complex, may also occur.[webmd.com]
    • See also AIDS-dementia complex , AIDS-wasting syndrome .[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Bacterial Meningitis
    • meningitis , tuberculosis , and salmonellosis fungal infections, such as esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), and candidiasis or thrush (yeast infection) Other Complications Children with HIV are also at higher risk for some forms of cancer because[kidshealth.org]
    Bacterial Pneumonia
    • Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci Recurrent severe bacterial pneumonia Recurrent blood infections caused by Salmonella bacteria Candida infection of the esophagus (swallowing tube) or lungs Cytomegalovirus infections including retinitis or infection[medicinenet.com]
    Burkitt Lymphoma
    • Other cancers that are more frequent include anal cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Some patients with AIDS are susceptible to malignant neoplasms, especially Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that both cause and result from immunodeficiency.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Candida Esophagitis
    • Although it can affect normal individuals, if it persists beyond a month, it may be due to HIV/AIDS Candida esophagitis: A painful fungal infection of the esophagus (tube through which food travels) Cryptococcus meningitis (fungal infection of the brain[dovemed.com]
    Cervical Cancer
    • cancer AIDS-related diseases also include serious weight loss and brain tumors.[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • This is unsurprising considering the link between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV), and the fact that cervical cancer, also caused by HPV, is considered an AIDS-defining condition. [ 70 ] HIV Encephalopathy is a severe condition usually seen[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • Cervical cancer occurs more frequently in those with AIDS because of its association with human papillomavirus (HPV).[en.wikipedia.org]
    • cancer Anal pap smear to check for cancer of the anus HIV/AIDS is treated with medicines that stop the virus from multiplying.[nlm.nih.gov]
    Coccidioidomycosis
    • […] still predictive of mortality. [ 68 ] Opportunistic infections and conditions include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal Cervical cancer, invasive* Coccidioidomycosis[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • […] immunoblastic, or lymphomas that start in the brain Wasting syndrome caused by HIV Certain parasites in the intestinal tract that cause intractable diarrhea : cryptosporidiosis , isosporiasis Certain fungal infections if found outside of the lungs: coccidioidomycosis[medicinenet.com]
    Cryptococcosis
    • Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually[fpnotebook.com]
    • […] infections and conditions include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal Cervical cancer, invasive* Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Cryptococcosis[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • […] diseases, including Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii ) pneumonia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, cytomegalovirus disease, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, candidal esophagitis, cryptosporidiosis, isoporiasis, cryptococcosis[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • […] lymphomas that start in the brain Wasting syndrome caused by HIV Certain parasites in the intestinal tract that cause intractable diarrhea : cryptosporidiosis , isosporiasis Certain fungal infections if found outside of the lungs: coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis[medicinenet.com]
    Cryptosporidiosis
    • Cryptosporidiosis, stool specimen, AFB stain,microscopic.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • […] include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal Cervical cancer, invasive* Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary Cryptosporidiosis[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • […] organs Invasive cervical cancer Kaposi sarcoma Selected types of lymphoma, including Burkitt, immunoblastic, or lymphomas that start in the brain Wasting syndrome caused by HIV Certain parasites in the intestinal tract that cause intractable diarrhea : cryptosporidiosis[medicinenet.com]
    • […] and characterized by opportunistic diseases, including Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii ) pneumonia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, cytomegalovirus disease, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, candidal esophagitis, cryptosporidiosis[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Cytomegalovirus Retinitis
    • retinitis (with vision loss) Encephalopathy, HIV-related Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer or ulcers (duration 1 mo) or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (duration 1 mo[emedicine.medscape.com]
    Dementia
    • • Twenty-nine patients at risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions characteristic of the AIDS dementia complex, either preceding or in the absence of major systemic opportunistic[archneur.jamanetwork.com]
    • Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia.[hon.ch]
    • […] the presence of HIV positivity including one or more of the following factors: Opportunistic infections that unusually occur in individuals with immunity Cancers that uncommonly occur in individuals with immunity Association with conditions such as dementia[dovemed.com]
    • Cancers (malignant neoplasms), and a wide variety of neurological abnormalities, most notably the AIDS dementia complex, may also occur.[webmd.com]
    Depression
    • Both cellular and humoral immunity were markedly depressed in animals with advanced SAIDS.[science.sciencemag.org]
    • If you feel anxious or have symptoms of depression , seek medical help immediately.[medicalnewstoday.com]
    • The later stages of HIV infection are characterized by the progressive depression of T cells and repeated infections that can even occur during a course of antibiotic therapy for another infection (superinfections).[webmd.com]
    • Psychological complications of AIDS may include chronic anxiety, depression, substance dependence, organic mental disorders, and suicidal ideation. interventions Treatment consists primarily of chronic symptom management and combined chemotherapy to counteract[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • Moreover, although VCT has been shown to reduce sexual behaviour among participants, the overall effectiveness of VCT programmes will depend on levels of uptake, which may be depressed by stigma and limited access to treatment ( 24 ).[scielosp.org]
    Hepatitis C
    • Betty Dong, PharmD My primary focus is on patients with chronic illnesses which may include any of the following: high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid issues, HIV, hepatitis C infection, patients on blood thinners and those who have difficulty with[pharmacy.ucsf.edu]
    • Sharing needles can expose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C.[medicalnewstoday.com]
    • C, CMV, or lymphoma HIV/AIDS dementia: These individuals may have problems with memory, attention, and emotions Peripheral neuropathy that could cause symptoms such as tingling, numbness, or pain in the lower extremities Hairy leukoplakia characterized[dovemed.com]
    • Hepatitis C is another very common co-infection where each disease increases the progression of the other.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Herpes Zoster
    • Herpes zoster infection of the skin can also occur prior to the onset of clinical AIDS.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • zoster ulcers and blisters of the skin and oral mucosa Kaposi’s sarcoma due to herpes virus (HHV 8): It is more common in men who have sex with men.[dovemed.com]
    Histoplasmosis
    • The authors of this study present a literature review and report a case of nasal histoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS.[journals.cambridge.org]
    • […] reporting: In the absence of the opportunistic diseases required by the current case definition, any of the following diseases will be considered indicative of AIDS if the patient has a positive serologic or virologic test for HTLV-III/LAV: (1) disseminated histoplasmosis[cdc.gov]
    • (duration 1 mo) Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen, or nodes) Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with vision loss) Encephalopathy, HIV-related Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer or ulcers (duration 1 mo) or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis Histoplasmosis[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • […] start in the brain Wasting syndrome caused by HIV Certain parasites in the intestinal tract that cause intractable diarrhea : cryptosporidiosis , isosporiasis Certain fungal infections if found outside of the lungs: coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , histoplasmosis[medicinenet.com]
    • It may be present with region-specific symptoms Histoplasmosis fungal infections of the lung Other signs and symptoms and diseases observed in HIV/AIDS affected individuals include: Arthritis (inflammation of the joints) Hepatitis (inflammation of liver[dovemed.com]
    Kaposi Sarcoma
    • Kaposi's sarcoma, skin, gross.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men--New York City and California.[cdc.gov]
    • Kaposi's sarcoma: A rare cancer that forms purplish patches on the skin and mucous membranes in various parts of the body.[scienceclarified.com]
    • Gastric and Peritoneal Involvement of Human Herpes Virus 8 Related Kaposi Sarcoma in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.[dovemed.com]
    • Presenting diagnosis of either opportunistic infection or Kaposi's sarcoma.[clinicaltrials.gov]
    Lymphoma
    • Malignant lymphoma, liver, gross.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • Nasal manifestation of the disease is rare, with only three cases reported in the literature, but it is part of the differential diagnosis for other granulomatous diseases, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, tegumentary leishmaniasis and nasal lymphoma[journals.cambridge.org]
    • Your doctor will need to rule out bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, and will also test for parasites and tumors before settling on a final diagnosis. lymphoma A term for a type of neoplasm that is made up of lymphoid tissue; these masses are usually[petmd.com]
    • Cancers: The four types of cancers that are included in the definition of AIDS are Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary lymphoma brain, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical cancer.[dovemed.com]
    • Other cancers that are more frequent include anal cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Malignant Neoplasm
    • The diagnosis of AIDS is made when an individual is infected by the HIV, has a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms[link.springer.com]
    • Cancers (malignant neoplasms), and a wide variety of neurological abnormalities, most notably the AIDS dementia complex, may also occur.[webmd.com]
    • Malignant Neoplasms Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) produces reddish purple patches, plaques, or nodules over the skin and can be diagnosed with skin biopsy.[library.med.utah.edu]
    Meningeal Tuberculosis
    • […] cytomegalovirus infection parasitic infections, such as PCP (a pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii , a microscopic parasite that can't be fought off due to a weakened immune system) and toxoplasmosis serious bacterial infections, such as bacterial meningitis[kidshealth.org]
    Meningitis
    • C neoformans often produces pneumonia and meningitis.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • Cryptococcus neoformans (a cause of meningitis).[conservapedia.com]
    • […] cytomegalovirus infection parasitic infections, such as PCP (a pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii , a microscopic parasite that can't be fought off due to a weakened immune system) and toxoplasmosis serious bacterial infections, such as bacterial meningitis[kidshealth.org]
    • Neurological signs also may be due to meningitis caused by the fungus Cryptococcus .[medicinenet.com]
    • Although it can affect normal individuals, if it persists beyond a month, it may be due to HIV/AIDS Candida esophagitis: A painful fungal infection of the esophagus (tube through which food travels) Cryptococcus meningitis (fungal infection of the brain[dovemed.com]
    Multiple Myeloma
    • myeloma Giles de la Tourette syndrome motor incoordination characterized by verbal, facial or limbic tics Gorlin's syndrome multiple naevus-like basal cell carcinomata, causing small pits and depressions of palmar and plantar skin Guillain-Barré syndrome[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    Mycobacterial Infection
    Myocarditis
    • Acute myocarditis may be present [10,23,24].[scielo.br]
    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • […] causing chronic diarrhea (over 1 month), diagnosed by histology or stool microscopy; (3) bronchial or pulmonary candidiasis, diagnosed by microscopy or by presence of characteristic white plaques grossly on the bronchial mucosa (not by culture alone); (4) non-Hodgkin's[cdc.gov]
    • lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma).[fpnotebook.com]
    • Cancers: The four types of cancers that are included in the definition of AIDS are Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary lymphoma brain, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cervical cancer.[dovemed.com]
    • Some patients with AIDS are susceptible to malignant neoplasms, especially Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that both cause and result from immunodeficiency.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
    • The two most common cancers associated with HIV/AIDS are Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Opportunistic Infection
    • All drugs used for the standard treatment of opportunistic infections.[clinicaltrials.gov]
    • CD4 counts remain at high risk for opportunistic infections.[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • If you get an opportunistic infection, you have AIDS.[aidsinfonet.org]
    • Opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS.[aids.gov]
    • Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Pancytopenia
    • Although other signs of immunodeficiency had already appeared, such as weight loss, chronic diarrhea and pancytopenia, the reason that the patient requested medical assistance was decreasing consciousness, caused by the intense parasitism of the CNS by[scielo.br]
    Peripheral Neuropathy
    • Neuropathy University of Chicago 5841 South Maryland Ave, MC 2030 Chicago, IL 60637 Tel: (773)702-5659 Fax: (773)702-5577 Internet: For a Complete Report This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD).[webmd.com]
    • neuropathy that could cause symptoms such as tingling, numbness, or pain in the lower extremities Hairy leukoplakia characterized by the presence of parallel hairy lines (projections) on the tongue, which is very specific to HIV/AIDS Gum disease (gingivitis[dovemed.com]
    • Neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or Guillain–Barré syndrome also occurs.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • "Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV/AIDS".[en.wikipedia.org]
    Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia
    • carinii pneumonia, a lung infection Kaposi's sarcoma, a skin cancer Cytomegalovirus, an infection that usually affects the eyes Candida, a fungal infection that can cause thrush, a white film and infections in the throat or vagina Invasive cervical cancer[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • carinii pneumonia (PCP). [10] Early on, the " gay disease " took on a variety of names, including "gay cancer" and "Gay-related immune deficiency" (GRID).[conservapedia.com]
    • Patients with AIDS are especially susceptible to opportunistic infections (usually pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, tuberculosis, candida infections, and cryptococcosis), and the development of malignant neoplasms (usually[fpnotebook.com]
    • In this period, between 100,000 and 300,000 people could have already been infected. 1 1980s 1981 In 1981, cases of a rare lung infection called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were found in five young, previously healthy gay men in Los Angeles.[avert.org]
    • The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very[en.wikipedia.org]
    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
    • Other cancers that are more frequent include anal cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Paradoxical central nervous system immune reconstitution syndrome in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. haematologica, 100(1), e21.[dovemed.com]
    Primary HIV Infection
    • This is called “acute retroviral syndrome” (ARS) or “primary HIV infection,” and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection.[aids.gov]
    • This is the acute, infectious, or primary HIV infection stage Following this, many HIV-infected individuals may not have symptoms on an average for up to 10 years.[dovemed.com]
    • The WHO system uses the following categories: Primary HIV infection: May be either asymptomatic or associated with acute retroviral syndrome.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
    • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), gross.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Rare disorder of the nervous system caused by a common human polyomavirus, JC virus.[conservapedia.com]
    • multifocal leukoencephalopathy Salmonella septicemia, recurrent Toxoplasmosis of the brain Wasting syndrome due to HIV infection Although malaria is not typically considered an opportunistic infection, its incidence was found to be significantly higher[emedicine.medscape.com]
    • multifocal leukoencephalopathy (a viral infection) seen in advanced stages of HIV infection.[dovemed.com]
    Pulmonary Candidiasis
    • candidiasis, diagnosed by microscopy or by presence of characteristic white plaques grossly on the bronchial mucosa (not by culture alone); (4) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of high-grade pathologic type (diffuse, undifferentiated) and of B-cell or unknown[cdc.gov]
    Pulmonary Tuberculosis
    • tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia and invasive cervical cancer to the list of AIDS indicators. 58 Over 700,000 people were thought to have the virus in Asia and the Pacific . 59 By the end of 1993, there were an estimated 2.5 million AIDS cases globally[avert.org]
    Recurrent Pneumonia
    • […] testing kit which could be used by healthcare professionals to detect HIV-1. 56 1993 In March 1993, the USA Congress voted overwhelmingly to retain the ban on entry into the country for people living with HIV. 57 The CDC added pulmonary tuberculosis, recurrent[avert.org]
    Seborrheic Dermatitis
    • This condition is characterized by reddish skin patches, fever, and the involvement of other organs Seborrheic dermatitis, if widespread, raises the suspicion of HIV/AIDS.[dovemed.com]
    Syphilis
    • Education of children and teens is vitally important to help prevent sexual transmission of HIV, as well as other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) , including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, syphilis, and HPV (which can cause genital[kidshealth.org]
    • […] the emergence of colonialism and growth of large colonial African cities, leading to social changes, including a higher degree of sexual promiscuity, the spread of prostitution, and the accompanying high frequency of genital ulcer diseases (such as syphilis[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Attempts to explain the apparent discrepancy between the findings of the Mwanza study and those of the two studies in Uganda have pointed to the higher baseline prevalence of non-ulcerative infections and syphilis in Mwanza than in Rakai and Masaka ([scielosp.org]
    • For sexual exposures, testing for syphilis , gonorrhea , chlamydia , and other sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ) usually should be done because individuals with HIV are more likely to have other STDs .[medicinenet.com]
    • Race and the prevalence of syphilis seroreactivity in the United States population: a national sero-epidemiologic study.[epirev.oxfordjournals.org]
    Toxoplasmosis
    • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that most often leads to infection of the brain with AIDS.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • In addition, people with AIDS may develop seizures , weakness , or mental changes due to toxoplasmosis , a parasite that infects the brain.[medicinenet.com]
    • Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.[dovemed.com]
    • Serological tests for toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were negative.[scielo.br]
    • […] pneumonia (LIP), herpes simplex virus, shingles, and the cytomegalovirus infection parasitic infections, such as PCP (a pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii , a microscopic parasite that can't be fought off due to a weakened immune system) and toxoplasmosis[kidshealth.org]
    Tuberculosis
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis , lung, gross.[library.med.utah.edu]
    • HIV is also one of the most important risk factors for tuberculosis.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Globally, tuberculosis is one of the most common infections associated with AIDS.[medicinenet.com]
    • It can also occur in the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract Tuberculosis is a lung infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is seen in an increasing frequency in the infected individuals than among the general population.[dovemed.com]
  • more...
  • Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Prevention

    Summary

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    References

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    3. Porter RS, Kaplan JL. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 19th Edition. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Whitehouse Station, N.J; 2011.
    4. Ortblad KF, Lozano R, Murray CJL. The burden of HIV: insights from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. AIDS (London, England). 2013;27(13):2003-2017.
    5. GBD 2015 HIV Collaborators. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980–2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet HIV. 2016 Aug; 3(8):e361–e387.
    6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014;63(RR-03):1-10.
    7. Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

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