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Acute Amphetamine Intoxication


Presentation

  • A comprehensive textbook of adult emergency medicine for trainee doctors - covers all the problems likely to present to a trainee in the emergency department.[books.google.de]
  • Nicotine Intoxication presentation restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, arrhythmias treatment no specific treatment symptomatic treatment only Withdrawal presentation irritability, headache, anxiety, weight gain, craving treatment for cessation pharmacologic[medbullets.com]
  • Prolonged hypertension may present a cardiovascular risk. Use benzodiazepine sedation (nonspecific sympatholysis) to initially manage hypertension, if present.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Patient [ 11 ] presented to the ER department with marked tachycardia, tremors, flushing and coma. The last case of acute accidental toxicity in pediatric patient [ 12 ] presented with aponea, irritability, somnolence and hallucinations.[omicsonline.org]
  • However, it should be noted that concomitant use of multiple substances would alter the individual presentation and clinical findings.[racgp.org.au]
Hyperthermia
  • […] evaluation and aggressive management of the agitation, hypertension, and hyperthermia is indicated.[calsprogram.org]
  • Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia). There is no stereotypical withdrawal syndrome.[merckmanuals.com]
  • ., turn down the thermostat). 2) judiciously use benzodiazepines to manage symptoms (if available) 3) atypical antipsychotics are useful if benzodiazepines fail to resolve overdose symptoms Hyperthermia Uncontrolled agitation can cause hyperthermia ([brainprotips.com]
  • In addition, animal studies suggest that haloperidol can antagonize amphetamine-induced hyperthermia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Hyperthermia often requires close monitoring and pharmacotherapy appropriate to an intensive care setting.[us.bestpractice.bmj.com]
Weight Loss
  • loss psychomotor agitation or retardation muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, or cardiac arrhythmias confusion, seizures, dyskinesias, dystonias, or coma D .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • Weight loss. Repetitive motor activity. Formication (sensory hallucination of insects crawling on/under skin, leading to obsessive scratching) and ulceration.[patient.info]
  • Prolonged use of amphetamines can lead to malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies, skin disorders, ulcers, lack of sleep, weight loss and depression.[erowid.org]
  • In addition to ADHD treatment , amphetamine and its legal relatives have sanctioned uses that include treatment of the sleep disorder narcolepsy and treatment of medically serious cases of obesity that require rapid weight loss.[promises.com]
  • loss Skin sores (abscesses or boils) The length of time methamphetamines stay active can be much longer than for cocaine and other stimulants.[medlineplus.gov]
Fever
  • Honestly, I think its the fever that gives the answer away. Other than that, I was going Cocaine, all the way. I think its an unfair question, asking you if "binge for days" or "fever" is more specific.[forums.studentdoctor.net]
  • In the case of a high fever, research into amphetamine toxicity emphasizes the importance of cooling the body first.[mentalhelp.net]
  • Radiated to the left of the chest and through to the back Associated with shortness of breath, sweating and nausea No cough, fever, haemoptysis Had some numbness in all 4 limbs, which may have been slightly worse in the left arm and leg than the right[slideshare.net]
  • He had a history of restlessness and vomiting for 10 hours and was admitted to hospital with mild fever (38 C), pulse rate of 140 per minute and respiratory rate of 34 per minute.[inchem.org]
  • (pinpoint pupils) seizures (overdose is life-threatening) for heroin use, look for track marks (needle injections) treatment pharmacologic Withdrawal presentation anxiety, insomnia, an orexia, sweating, dilated pupils, piloerection ("cold turkey"), fever[medbullets.com]
Pallor
  • Finally, child number [ 8 ] presented at admission a picture characterized by abnormal movement, abnormal behavior and pallor followed by acute episodes of generalized irritability, a few seconds long.[omicsonline.org]
Rigor
  • […] reported after amphetamine inhalation (Brust, 1993). 9.4.3 Neurological 9.4.3.1 Central nervous system (CNS) Main symptoms include agitation, confusion, delirium, hallucinations, dizziness, dyskinesia, hyperactivity, muscle fasciculation and rigidity, rigors[inchem.org]
Tachypnea
  • Effects of Methamphetamine Use Acute exposure Anorexia Anxiety Death Hypertension Hyperthermia Insomnia Myocardial infarction Paranoia Psychosis Renal failure Rhabdomyolysis Seizures Sexually and parenterally transmitted infections Stroke Tachycardia Tachypnea[aafp.org]
  • […] users have lower BMI Disheveled appearance Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat Minimally reactive mydriasis Bruxism Trismus Mucosal injury/burns Poor dentation/tooth decay (“meth mouth”) Dental abscess Cardiovascular Tachycardia Hypertension Murmur Pulmonary Tachypnea[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Soong et al noted two cases of infant toxicity, finding clinical signs to include “restlessness, hyperactivity, hypertension, tachycardia and tachypnea” Chern & Tsai reported a case of perverse catatonia in a 30 year old woman “who developed immobility[idmu.co.uk]
  • Clinical signs of amphetamines toxicity especially in pediatric population include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, mydriasis, tremors, and seizures.[omicsonline.org]
  • It is postulated that the cardiovascular collapse arises from a combination of neurotransmitter depletion, dehydration, and metabolic acidosis. 5 Respiratory Tachypnea, increases in minute ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and noncardiogenic pulmonary[calsprogram.org]
Nausea
  • Within one hour of use, at least two of the following physical symptoms: tachycardia pupillary dilation elevated blood pressure perspiration or chills nausea or vomiting D .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • Clinical Course Shortly after ingestion, patients may suffer nausea, vomiting, and malaise.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • ANTIDEPRESIVOS TRICICLICOS FENOTIAZINA, HALOPERIDOL 10 INTOXICACION AGUDA MENOR AGRESIVIDAD IRRITABILIDAD INQUIETUD CEFALEAS INSOMNIO VERBORRAGIA TEMBLORES 11 INTOXICACION AGUDA MENOR HIPERFLEXIA PALPITACIONES TAQUICARDIA SUDORACION SEQUEDAD DE MUCOSAS NAUSEAS[slideplayer.es]
  • Nausea. Vomiting. Aggression. Confusion. Seizures. Coma. Death. An amphetamine overdose is a serious medical emergency, and often indicates the presence of a serious underlying substance use disorder .[projectknow.com]
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma. Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice.[erowid.org]
Vomiting
  • This condition is marked by brown stains on the lips and mouth; burning pain in the mouth, throat, and stomach; vomiting (blue vomit if the stomach contained starches, otherwise yellow vomit); bloody diarrhea.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Within one hour of use, at least two of the following physical symptoms: tachycardia pupillary dilation elevated blood pressure perspiration or chills nausea or vomiting D .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • The symptoms of cannabis intoxication include nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, thirst, hyperorexia, pale skin and conjunctival hyperemia.[omicsonline.org]
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma. Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice.[erowid.org]
  • […] follows: Change of mental status, disorientation, and headache Dyskinesias Agitation Formication Symptoms of stroke Cardiovascular manifestations are as follows: Chest pain Palpitations Gastrointestinal manifestations are as follows: Dry mouth Nausea and vomiting[emedicine.medscape.com]
Diarrhea
  • Symptoms Nausea, salivation, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, dizziness, and mental confusion.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma. Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice.[erowid.org]
  • Diarrhea. Stomach cramps. In rare cases, an overdose can be fatal . According to the FDA, convulsions or coma usually precede death in these cases .[mentalhelp.net]
  • Accidental opiate toxicity in pediatric patient represent in two cases one had 1 day male newborn with transplacental exposure of morphine from an addicted opiate mother and represented with meiosis, irritability diarrhea and hypoglycemia as a result[omicsonline.org]
  • Change of mental status, disorientation, and headache Dyskinesias Agitation Formication Symptoms of stroke Cardiovascular manifestations are as follows: Chest pain Palpitations Gastrointestinal manifestations are as follows: Dry mouth Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea[emedicine.medscape.com]
Loss of Appetite
  • Some of the immediate effects of amphetamines include: a burst of energy, making the user talkative, restless and excited accelerated heart rate and breathing high-blood pressure dry mouth and jaw clenching sweating dilated pupils loss of appetite.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • They include abdominal pain, acne, blurred vision, excessive grinding of the teeth, profuse sweating, dry mouth, loss of appetite, nausea, reduced seizure threshold, tics, and weight loss.[omicsonline.org]
  • Early symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, anemia, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, headache, lead line on gums, apathy or irritability, and a metallic taste in the mouth.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Bruxism
  • […] may result in uncontrolled hypertension) or phenytoin (potential cardiac adverse effects) Clinical manifestations of psychostimulant toxicity acute toxicity cardiovascular CNS agitation, panic states, paranoia, euphoria, hallucinations and psychosis, bruxism[ozemedicine.com]
  • Acute Complications - Neurological Movement disorders - Increased muscle tone or repetitive movements e.g. bruxism/choreoathetoid movement - Treat with PO/VIV benzodiazepines Seizures - Treat with PO/VIV benzodiazepines - Consider barbituates as a second[slideshare.net]
  • […] doses produce tachycardia and other dysrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation Hypertensive crisis or vasospasm may lead to stroke Central nervous system findings are as follows: Increased alertness Euphoria Confusion or agitation Bruxism[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • They are usually brief and self-limited.6 Tremor, hyperreflexia, choreoathetoid movements, and bruxism (tooth grinding) are common and are thought to arise from alteration in the dopaminergic neurotransmission. 7 Altered level of consciousness (LOC) to[calsprogram.org]
  • General Diaphoresis Malnourishment, on average methamphetamine users have lower BMI Disheveled appearance Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat Minimally reactive mydriasis Bruxism Trismus Mucosal injury/burns Poor dentation/tooth decay (“meth mouth”) Dental[clinicaladvisor.com]
Hypertension
  • Hypertension Hypertension is generally controlled with benzodiazepines; refractory hypertension may require the antihypertensives nitroprusside or phentolamine.[brainprotips.com]
  • hypertension is often transient and does not usually require Rx unless severe. avoid beta blockers as blockade of beta 2 receptor which mediates skeletal vasodilatation may result in uncontrolled hypertension in a setting of unopposed alpha stimulation[ozemedicine.com]
  • Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia). There is no stereotypical withdrawal syndrome.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Pheochromocytoma usually produces intermittent hypertension, diaphoresis, diarrhea, and vomiting.[calsprogram.org]
  • Their capacity to produce transit arterial hypertension and cerebral vascular constriction could be the physiopathological substrate of such alterations” Buchanan et al noted “amphetamine overdose characterised by tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia[idmu.co.uk]
Tachycardia
  • Within one hour of use, at least two of the following physical symptoms: tachycardia pupillary dilation elevated blood pressure perspiration or chills nausea or vomiting D .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • In the current study, abnormal behavior, irritability, tachycardia were the main presented symptoms and signs.[omicsonline.org]
  • Benzodiazepines are the drug of choice for controlling anxiety, agitation, hypertension, and tachycardia.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • […] irritability and excitability, nervousness, night terrors, euphoria, tremor, dizziness, headache; convulsions, dependence and tolerance, sometimes psychosis; anorexia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, growth restriction in children, dry mouth, sweating, tachycardia[idmu.co.uk]
  • Tachycardia in the absence of severe hypertension rarely needs specific treatment unless a PSVT is present needing treatment with adenosine or a calcium channel blocker.[calsprogram.org]
Chest Pain
  • Case Study Complaining of sudden onset of severe left sided chest pain, both dull and sharp.[slideshare.net]
  • pain, or cardiac arrhythmias confusion, seizures, dyskinesias, dystonias, or coma D .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • Individuals who have used psychostimulants and soon after experience symptoms of chest pain, rapidly increasing body temperature, psychotic features (hallucinations, severe paranoia, delusions or thought disorder), severe agitation or uncontrollable behavioural[health.gov.au]
  • Thus, chest pain associated with methamphetamine use should be evaluated as a possible acute coronary syndrome with the obtaining of ECGs and cardiac enzymes. Management is similar to chest pain management associated with cocaine ingestion.[calsprogram.org]
  • ., lead) introduced as contaminants in illicitly manufactured supplies of methamphetamine, and liver failure.[2,3] Depending on the route of administration, signs and symptoms of MA overdose include:[4,5] Chest pain Arrhythmias Hypertension or Hypotension[methoide.fcm.arizona.edu]
Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Tachycardia, palpitations, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and orthostatic hypotension are also reported. 21,22 Although cannabis use is associated with psychotic disorders, acute cannabis toxicity is rarely serious, and symptoms usually resolve within[racgp.org.au]
  • The most consistent cardiac change is an increased resting heart rate, although orthostatic hypotension may occur.[ijaweb.org]
Formication
  • Central nervous system manifestations are as follows: Change of mental status, disorientation, and headache Dyskinesias Agitation Formication Symptoms of stroke Cardiovascular manifestations are as follows: Chest pain Palpitations Gastrointestinal manifestations[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Formication (sensory hallucination of insects crawling on/under skin, leading to obsessive scratching) and ulceration.[patient.info]
  • Formication —The sensation of bugs creeping on the skin. Hyperthermia —Elevated body temperature resulting from ingestion of amphetamines. Methamphetamine —The most common illegally produced amphetamine.[encyclopedia.com]
  • […] develop anxiety or paranoid ideas, also with the possibility of experiencing terrifying psychotic episodes that resemble schizophrenia , with visual or auditory hallucinations , delusions such as the sensation of insects creeping on the skin, known as "formication[minddisorders.com]
  • Dermatologic Multiple skin excoriations caused by user picking at his or her skin due to formication (an abnormal sensation that resembles that made by insects creeping in or on the skin) is common in protracted methamphetamine abuse.[calsprogram.org]
Blurred Vision
  • vision Chest pain Hallucinations Unrealistic ideas of personal ability and power Convulsions Malnutrition Skin disorders Amphetamine-caused psychosis Some people who abused this drug would wear themselves out with amphetamine binges, taking the drug[narconon.org]
  • Unpleasant physical symptoms include heart palpitations, headaches, dizziness, blurred vision and loss of coordination.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Inhalants Mechanism unknown Intoxication presentation belligerence, assaultiveness apathy, impaired judgement blurred vision, coma treatment no specific treatment antipsychotics (haloperidol) if severe aggression Withdrawal not well characterized, no[medbullets.com]
  • They include abdominal pain, acne, blurred vision, excessive grinding of the teeth, profuse sweating, dry mouth, loss of appetite, nausea, reduced seizure threshold, tics, and weight loss.[omicsonline.org]
  • Shortly after exposure, headache, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, vomiting, diarrhea, muscular twitching, convulsions, dyspnea, and blurred vision occur. paregoric poisoning See: opiate poisoning phenol poisoning Intoxication or chemical burns of the[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Diplopia
  • Other symptoms include fatigue, drowsiness, general muscle weakness, and visual disturbances such as blurring of vision, yellow-green or white halos around visual images, light flashes, photophobia, and diplopia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Photophobia
  • Other symptoms include fatigue, drowsiness, general muscle weakness, and visual disturbances such as blurring of vision, yellow-green or white halos around visual images, light flashes, photophobia, and diplopia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Muscle Cramp
  • Following amphetamine intoxication, a "crash" occurs with symptoms of anxiety, shakiness, depressed mood, lethargy, fatigue, nightmares, headache, perspiring, muscle cramps, stomach cramps, and increased appetite.[minddisorders.com]
  • Following amphetamine intoxication, a “crash” occurs with symptoms of anxiety, shakiness, depressed mood, lethargy, fatigue, nightmares, headache, perspiring, muscle cramps, stomach cramps, and increased appetite.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Prescribed anticonvulsants are administered as necessary to control seizures (often severe and protracted), an antiemetic for nausea and vomiting, an antispasmodic for muscle cramps, and analgesics and muscle relaxants for muscle and joint pain.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • twitching Risky sexual behavior Amphetamines are meant to produce short-term, immediate effects on the user.[projectknow.com]
  • Caffeine Mechanism adenosine antagonist decreased GABA activity (wakefulness) Intoxication presentation restlessness, insomnia diuresis muscle twitching cardiac arrhythmias treatment no specific treatment symptomatic treatment only Withdrawal presentation[medbullets.com]
Delusion
  • Individuals who have used psychostimulants and soon after experience symptoms of chest pain, rapidly increasing body temperature, psychotic features (hallucinations, severe paranoia, delusions or thought disorder), severe agitation or uncontrollable behavioural[health.gov.au]
  • In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation.[cochrane.org]
  • The psychosis is manifested by hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Bizarre, sometime violent, behavior is exhibited by those with amphetamine psychosis. Symptoms usually disappear within a few weeks after drug use stops.[erowid.org]
  • A person may suffer hallucinations, delusions and aggressive or violent behaviors as they come off the drug.[narconon.org]
  • Marijuana (Cannabis) Mechanism binds to CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors Intoxication presentation euphoria, anxiety, disinhibition, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, conjunctival injection, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, appetite, dry[medbullets.com]
Aggressive Behavior
  • In a significant numbers of users, aggressive behavior and hallucinations may occur over time. 2 Anytime a user takes high doses of amphetamines, there is a serious risk of overdose.[projectknow.com]
  • Gettig et al described symptoms of methamphetamine abuse as “agitation; aggressive behavior; rapid mood swings; hypertension; tachycardia; and eventually lesion-marked skin, clinical depression, and paranoid psychosis” Reviewing drug-related deaths in[idmu.co.uk]
  • Legal problems may stem from aggressive behavior while using, or from obtaining drugs illegally. Individuals may continue to use despite the awareness that usage negatively impacts all areas of their lives.[minddisorders.com]
Auditory Hallucination
  • Visual, sensory and auditory hallucinations. Mood disturbance. Weight loss. Repetitive motor activity. Formication (sensory hallucination of insects crawling on/under skin, leading to obsessive scratching) and ulceration.[patient.info]
  • The individual may develop anxiety or paranoid ideas, also with the possibility of experiencing terrifying psychotic episodes that resemble schizophrenia , with visual or auditory hallucinations , delusions such as the sensation of insects creeping on[minddisorders.com]
  • Individuals may develop anxiety or paranoid ideas, also with the possibility of experiencing terrifying psychotic episodes that resemble schizophrenia, with visual or auditory hallucinations, delusions such as the sensation of insects creeping on the[encyclopedia.com]
  • Habitual use or chronic abuse usually results in toxic psychosis classically characterised by paranoia, delusions and hallucinations, which are usually visual, tactile or olfactory in nature, in contrast to the typical auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia[inchem.org]
  • Intense intoxication may cause paranoid ideation, auditory hallucinations in a clear sensorium, and tactile hallucinations (e.g., formication or a feeling of bugs under the skin). Extreme anger with violence may occur.[mentalhealth.com]
Visual Hallucination
  • In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation.[cochrane.org]
  • LSD Mechanism action at 5-HT receptor Intoxication presentation visual hallucinations and synesthesias ( e.g., seeing sound as color) marked anxiety or depression, delusions, pupillary dilation "bad trip" panic treatment pharmacologic antipsychotics ([medbullets.com]
  • In case [ 2 ] we observed a condition characterized by drowsiness, moderate malaise, visual hallucination, and tachyaponea. In patient [ 3 ] there was the presence of generalized hyperactivity, hypertonia and hyperreflexia.[omicsonline.org]
Stereotyped Behavior
  • ., euphoria or affective blunting; changes in sociability; hypervigilance; interpersonal sensitivity; anxiety, tension, or anger; stereotyped behaviors; impaired judgement; or impaired social or occupational functioning) that developed during, or shortly[dsm.wikia.com]
  • behavior repetitive motions (eg. digging through trash) treatment pharmacologic antipsychotics (haloperidol) benzodiazepines antihypertensives (labetalol - need alpha-1 blockade) vitamin C - promotes excretion non-pharmacologic do not restrain patients[medbullets.com]
  • ., euphoria or emotional blunting; gregariousness; hypervigilance; interpersonal sensitivity; anxiety, tension or anger; stereotyped behaviors; impaired judgment; or impaired social or occupational functioning).[mentalhealth.com]
Agitation
  • Sedation for Control of Agitation Extreme agitation in acutely intoxicated methamphetamine users may pose a significant danger to staff, other patients, as well as patients themselves. Thus, immediate control of severe agitation is essential.[calsprogram.org]
  • Anxiety and agitation Cardiovascular collapse has been precipitated by severe agitation requiring physical restraints.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Patients with severe hyperthermia (temperature 104 F) associated with psychomotor agitation may require immediate neuromuscular paralysis to rapidly decrease temperature.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Within one hour of use, at least two of the following psychological symptoms: psychomotor agitation elation grandiosity loquacity hypervigilance C .[dsm.wikia.com]
  • […] can cause hyperthermia ( 41.41 deg C); sedation with benzodiazepines may be required in the agitated hyperthermic patient.[brainprotips.com]
Seizure
  • , haloperidol rarely is associated with seizures (minimal effects on seizure threshold).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Treat methamphetamine-induced seizures as seizures of unknown etiology. ( Vol III—NEU1 Status Epilepticus) For refractory seizures, consider propofol 2.5 mg/kg followed by 0.2 mg/kg/min IV drip.[calsprogram.org]
  • Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia). There is no stereotypical withdrawal syndrome.[merckmanuals.com]
  • On his second hospital day, the patient has a seizure.[medbullets.com]
  • Seizures Seizures are severe neurological problems and can result in rapid fatality or life-long disabilities including brain damage. 3.[amphetamines.com]
Stroke
  • Gain fresh perspectives and up-to-date insights from the world’s leading authorities on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of stroke.[books.google.de]
  • […] all the latest approaches in clinical laboratory medicine with new and updated coverage of: the chemical basis for analyte assays and common interferences; lipids and dyslipoproteinemia; markers in the blood for cardiac injury evaluation and related stroke[books.google.de]
  • Rapid Pulse A rapid pulse can lead to damages in the blood vessels or heart valves and increase the risk of severe cardiovascular problems, stroke, or bleeding in the brain. 4.[amphetamines.com]
  • Their neurological complications are principally: psychic alterations, seizures and stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic). The latter are the most important in the clinical practice.[idmu.co.uk]
  • Further disability may occur if the person had a heart attack or a stroke. These can happen if the drug caused very high blood pressure and body temperatures.[medlineplus.gov]
Hyperactivity
  • Some amphetamines, including dextroamphetamine , methamphetamine , and the related methylphenidate , are widely used medically to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obesity, and narcolepsy, thus creating a supply subject to diversion for[merckmanuals.com]
  • […] or Hypotension Difficult or labored breathing (Dyspnea) Agitation Hallucinations Psychosis Seizures Rapid or slow heart beat (tachycardia or bradycardia) Hyperthermia The hyperthermia that occurs frequently during MA overdose can be due to muscular hyperactivity[methoide.fcm.arizona.edu]
  • Amphetamine Intoxication generally begins with a "high" feelings, followed by the development of symptoms such as euphoria with enhanced vigor, gregariousness, hyperactivity, restlessness, hypervigilance, interpersonal sensitivity, talkativeness, anxiety[dsm.wikia.com]
  • It shares the stimulant designation with other chemically unrelated substances that include cocaine and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication methylphenidate.[promises.com]
  • Adderall Overdose Symptoms (Moderate) Patients with mild-to-moderate amphetamine poisoning may present with the following symptoms: hyperactivity diaphoresis flushing mydriasis nausea vomiting abdominal pain hypertension palpitations tachycardia chest[brainprotips.com]
Confusion
  • […] or bradycardia pupillary dilation elevated or lowered blood pressure perspiration or chills nausea or vomiting evidence of weight loss psychomotor agitation or retardation muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, or cardiac arrhythmias confusion[dsm.wikia.com]
  • Symptoms Manifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia, and rhabdomyolysis.[erowid.org]
  • Cognitive Difficulties Confusion, poor judgment, fainting, and loss of consciousness are amphetamine overdose symptoms you should be aware. They often preclude or coincide with more imminent dangers. 8.[amphetamines.com]
  • General findings are as follows: Weight loss Hyperactivity, confusion, and agitation (may combine to produce severe hyperthermia, which can be worse in physically restrained individuals) Diaphoresis Mydriasis Anorexia Cardiovascular findings are as follows[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Other signs and symptoms of intoxication are increased heartrate, dilation of the pupils, elevated or lowered blood pressure, perspiration or chills, nausea or vomiting, weight loss, cardiac irregularities and, eventually, confusion, seizures, coma, or[minddisorders.com]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • Psychological Complications Chronic use can cause: chaotic behavior, social isolation, aggressive behavior, sexual dysfunction, legal problems, depression, social and occupational failure. High-dose use causes psychotic episodes.[mentalhealth.com]

Treatment

  • Access the comprehensive, expert clinical guidance you need to recognize the clinical manifestations of stroke, use the latest laboratory and imaging studies to arrive at a diagnosis, and generate an effective medical and surgical treatment plan.[books.google.de]
  • Also has boxes featuring controversial areas of treatment. Practical and clinically orientated. Major changes to resuscitation guidelines. Complete rewriting of ENT section.[books.google.de]
  • The book examines criminalistics, pathology, pharmacokinetics, neurochemistry, treatment, as well as drugs and drug testing in the workplace and in sports, and the ethical, legal, and practical issues involved. Dr.[books.google.com]
  • Effectively monitor the pace of drug clearing in patients undergoing pharmacogenomic treatments with a new chapter on this groundbreaking new area.[books.google.de]
  • In addition to ADHD treatment , amphetamine and its legal relatives have sanctioned uses that include treatment of the sleep disorder narcolepsy and treatment of medically serious cases of obesity that require rapid weight loss.[promises.com]

Prognosis

  • Definition Description Causes and symptoms Demographics Diagnosis Treatments Prognosis Prevention Resources Definition Amphetamines are a group of powerful and highly addictive substances that dramatically affect the central nervous system .[encyclopedia.com]
  • Hyperpyrexia is an important marker of poor prognosis, and must be handled aggressively.”[idmu.co.uk]
  • Prognosis Classic amphetamines According to the DSM-IV-TR , some individuals who develop abuse or dependence on amphetamines initiate use in an attempt to control their weight. Others become introduced through the illegal market.[minddisorders.com]
  • 9.1.1 Ingestion 9.1.2 Inhalation 9.1.3 Skin exposure 9.1.4 Eye contact 9.1.5 Parenteral exposure 9.1.6 Other 9.2 Chronic poisoning 9.2.1 Ingestion 9.2.2 Inhalation 9.2.3 Skin exposure 9.2.4 Eye contact 9.2.5 Parenteral exposure 9.2.6 Other 9.3 Course, prognosis[inchem.org]
  • With appropriate supportive and symptomatic therapy, prognosis is good. quail poisoning Acute myoglobinuria caused by eating game birds of the species Coturnix coturnix .[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Etiology

  • Differential Diagnosis The differential diagnosis of methamphetamine intoxication includes many toxicological and nontoxicological etiologies.[calsprogram.org]
  • Conclusion: A high index with early priority of suspicion should be maintained for substances of abuse involving “amphetamines, cannabis or morphine” intoxication in previously healthy children with acute onset of neurological symptoms of unknown etiology[omicsonline.org]
  • Therapy: randomized controlled trial Drug Therapy: multicenter randomized controlled trial Drug Therapy: placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial Economic Impact Education Electroconvulsive Therapy Embryology Enzymology Epidemiology Escitalopram Etiology[mentalhealth.com]

Epidemiology

  • Objective/s This article describes the current epidemiology and harms related to illicit drug use, and outlines the principles in the management of acute overdose.[racgp.org.au]
  • Epidemiology In England and Wales, the 2008-2009 British Crime Survey found a self-reported 1.2% prevalence of amfetamine use in adults aged 16-59 over the previous year and 2.6% prevalence in 16-24 year-olds.[patient.info]
  • Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of nonmedical prescription drug use and drug use disorders in the United States: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(7):1062–73.[link.springer.com]
  • Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of nonmedical prescription drug use and drug use disorders in the United States: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry . 2006 Jul. 67(7):1062-73.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Gain fresh perspectives and up-to-date insights from the world’s leading authorities on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of stroke.[books.google.de]
  • The resemblance of the features in this case to instances of heatstroke is striking and suggests a similar pathophysiology. FULL TEXT[annals.org]
  • Wiliams & Wilkins, Baltimore MN, pp 207–223 Google Scholar Kosten TR (2002) Pathophysiology and treatment of cocaine dependence. In: Davis KI, Charney D, Coyle JT, Nemeroff C (eds) Neuropsychopharmacology. The fith generation of progress.[link.springer.com]
  • Therefore, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology and anaesthetic implications of drug abuse in adolescent is essential to tailor a safe anaesthetic plan for these high-risk groups of patients.[ijaweb.org]

Prevention

  • Stay up to date on hot topics such as mechanisms of action of commonly used drugs, neuronal angiogenesis and stem cells, basic mechanisms of spasm and hemorrhage, prevention of stroke, genetics/predisposing risk factors, and much more.[books.google.de]
  • Get optimal test results with guidance on error detection, correction, and prevention as well as cost-effective test selection.[books.google.de]
  • Avoid use of beta-blockers in order to prevent unopposed alpha effect (vasoconstriction).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • However, the AAFP encourages easy access to an established drug rehabilitation program. 48 Prevention There is little evidence regarding the prevention of methamphetamine abuse.[aafp.org]
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.[medlineplus.gov]

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