Question 1 of 10

    Acute Bronchitis (Acute airway course inflammation (bronchitis) by irritants)

    Bronchitis[1]

    Acute bronchitis is a common, acute inflammation of the bronchi, with fever and a productive cough.

    Acute Bronchitis emerges due to this process: infectious.

    Presentation

    Cardiovascular

    There may be chest tightness involved depending on the severity. Although acute bronchitis is usually self-limiting with frequent bouts can lead to chronic bronchitis and possibly COPD and heart failure.

    Musculoskeletal

    The main symptom in this category would be muscle aches due to the chills and fever, and chest discomfort from the coughing.

    Respiratory

    Production of sputum that is usually white and clear, but can also be yellowish-grey or green in color, occurs. Occasionally, but rarely, it can be streaked with blood. There may also be shortness of breath due to the inflammation of the bronchial tubes and not being able to get enough air flow to the lungs. Tachypnea may be present. Productive cough of more than 5 days duration may already be suggestive of bronchitis [5].

    Systemic

    Sometimes there can be a slight fever and chills, as in flu like symptoms. If the acute bronchitis is from a bacterial infection, it possibly, but rarely can get into the blood stream and cause bacteremia.

    Entire body system
    Fever
    • […] subsides Oral fluids (up to 3 or 4 L/day) are urged during the febrile course An antipyretic analgesic relieves malaise and reduces fever Antibiotics are indicated when there is concomitant COPD purulent sputum is present high fever persists and the[medbullets.com]
    • Other symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, and chest discomfort.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Older patients may present with a low-grade fever but still have pneumonia.[drugs.com]
    • The fever may rise to 101 to 102 F and last three to five days even after antibiotics are started.[cedars-sinai.edu]
    • Acute Bronchitis Treatment Treatment for bronchitis usually includes home remedies discussed such as drinking plenty of fluids, quitting smoking, getting plenty of rest, and taking over-the-counter fever reducers.[onhealth.com]
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  • respiratoric
    Acute Cough
    • Over-the-counter antitussive medicines don't seem to work for acute cough.[pulmccm.org]
    • (See Differential diagnoses for acute cough illness .)[nursingcenter.com]
    • Acute Cough Illness (Acute Bronchitis): Physician Information Sheet (Adults).” 2013.[ncqa.org]
    • Article Keywords Keyword Highlighting Highlight selected keywords in the article text. acute bronchitis acute cough illness respiratory tract infection Search for Similar Articles You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or[journals.lww.com]
    • Background Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis (based on medical signs and patient-reported symptoms) for an acute cough, which may or may not be associated with coughing up mucus or sputum .[cochrane.org]
    Bronchospasm and Wheezing
    • However, it is not uncommon for individuals with acute bronchitis to experience bronchospasm and wheezing, especially if there is an underlying history of asthma. 10 In order to accurately diagnose and manage acute bronchitis in adults, the NP should[nursingcenter.com]
    Cough
    Dyspnea
    • Differential Diagnosis of Acute Bronchitis The acute bronchitis must be differentiated from other diseases that may cause cough , dyspnea and wheezing . [1] Disease Findings Chronic Bronchitis Presents with chronic cough, dyspnea and sputum production[wikidoc.org]
    • Acute bronchitis (ReelDx) Presentation Pearls Diagnostic studies Treatment Patient will present with  cough and dyspnea for 6 days Acute bronchitis is defined by a cough which persists for MORE THAN 5 DAYS Fever is unusual in acute bronchitis if your[smartypance.com]
    • References: [1] [2] [3] Clinical features Cough 5 days Resolves in 2–3 weeks Sputum ( 50% of cases), especially as infection progresses Runny nose and sore throat (likely symptoms of the preceding or simultaneous URI ) Chest pain and dyspnea Headache[amboss.com]
    • 45 years old and above, although the disease can affect anyone. 18 If you or someone you know exhibits these symptoms , consulting a physician is an absolute must, since there are complications which could arise from chronic bronchitis, such as: 19 Dyspnea[articles.mercola.com]
    • […] approximately 70% receiving antibiotics, most of which are not needed. [3] There are efforts to decrease the use of antibiotics in acute bronchitis. [13] Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Bronchitis may be indicated by an expectorating cough , shortness of breath ( dyspnea[en.wikipedia.org]
    Hemoptysis
    • […] cases–diagnostic impact of chest x-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy - M Tsoumakidou, G Chrysofakis, I Tsiligianni - , 2006 - content.karger.com A prospective analysis of 184 hemoptysis cases–diagnostic impact of chest x-ray, computed tomography[symptoma.com]
    Pneumonia
    • Both acute bronchitis and pneumonia are caused by inflammation in the lungs, but bronchitis is more often viral and pneumonia is more often bacterial.[softschools.com]
    • A chest X-ray may be useful to detect pneumonia.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Pneumonia : Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick.[good4utah.com]
    • , and whooping cough age older than 50 years Bronchitis vs. pneumonia Acute bronchitis vs. pneumonia Both bronchitis and pneumonia are infections in your lungs.[healthline.com]
    • Etiology Viruses ( 90% of cases) Influenza A and B Parainfluenza Adenovirus RSV Rhinovirus Coronavirus Metapneumovirus Bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Bordetella pertussis Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (in patients[amboss.com]
    Productive Cough
    • Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • You’ll likely notice mucous in your chest, which may or may not come up when you cough (when it does, it's called a productive cough).[self.com]
    • Symptoms Acute bronchitis usually begins with a productive cough which brings up mucus that may be white, yellow or green.[ada.com]
    • Study characteristics We included randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo or no treatment in people with acute bronchitis or acute productive cough and no underlying chronic lung condition.[cochrane.org]
    • These symptoms will only last for a few days, but the productive cough will last for several weeks.[physio-pedia.com]
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  • musculoskeletal
    Myalgia
    • Other flu-like symptoms like malaise, myalgia or sore throat may occur.[ada.com]
    • References: [1] [2] [3] Clinical features Cough 5 days Resolves in 2–3 weeks Sputum ( 50% of cases), especially as infection progresses Runny nose and sore throat (likely symptoms of the preceding or simultaneous URI ) Chest pain and dyspnea Headache Malaise Myalgias[amboss.com]
    • Symptoms of influenza can include fever, myalgia, headache, malaise, cough, sore throat, and runny nose.[nursingcenter.com]
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  • cardiovascular
    Chest Pain
    • Acute bronchitis usually follows an upper RTI and presents with cough , sometimes in combination with sputum, runny nose, chest pain , headache , and malaise.[amboss.com]
    • Other symptoms may include wheezing, shortness of breath, mild fever and chest pain.[ada.com]
    • If your cough lasts for more than 2 to 3 weeks, or is accompanied by more serious symptoms like a high fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, wheezing, or bloody mucous, it’s probably time to see a doctor.[drugs.com]
    • Red flag symptoms Some red flag symptoms that need medical attention immediately include:- Very severe cough that lasts over three weeks High fever for over three days Chest pains and rapid breathing rates of over 30 per minute Coughing up blood or sputum[news-medical.net]
    • Symptoms may also include wheezing (a whistling or squeaky sound when you breathe), chest pain or discomfort, a low fever, and shortness of breath .[agingcare.com]
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  • Workup

    • The first thing that the healthcare provider will be to ask questions regarding health history, such as smoking, second hand smoke or working in noxious inhalants.
    • The healthcare provider will then listen to the lungs for air exchange and wheezing. They will listen for the presence of rhonchi, prolonged expiration and wheezing.
    • The sputum can be tested for the presence of bacteria.
    • Oxygen saturation percentage will be measured with a pulse oximeter.
    • Chest x-ray may be done to rule out the presence of pneumonia.
    • Blood tests may be performed.
    • If necessary, pulmonary function tests and spirometry may be done, but these are performed when other diseases are suspected, such as COPD.

    Imaging

    X-ray
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  • Treatment

    The recommended treatment for acute bronchitis leans more towards palliative care, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen for chills and fever, plenty of fluids and antitussives. Acute bronchitis is self-limiting and resolves on its own, although the cough may continue for a few more weeks. Antibiotics usually are not recommended as typically it is caused by a viral infection [6].

    Antibiotic therapy may be given to high risk patients like those with asthma, smokers and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), coupling it with bronchodilators significantly reduces hospital stay [7]. Studies further supports that using antibiotics in bronchitis cases can reduce hospital re-visits of patients from 76.8% to 27% in a 3 year period [8].

    Occasionally a short-term dose of steroids may help with the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Oral anti-inflammatory agents has been used to control the inflammation in acute bronchitis [9].

    Prognosis

    Acute bronchitis is almost always self limiting and clears up usually in 2 to 3 weeks without antibiotics. Some people, including infants, the elderly and those with pre-existing lung or cardiovascular diseases may be at higher risk of complications.

    Although the main course of the acute bronchitis will subside quickly, the cough may continue for weeks after. If it lasts longer than a month, the physician may refer the patient to an otorhinolaryngologist, to see if something other than the bronchitis is causing the irritation to the lungs.

    Complications

    About one out of 20 people who experience acute bronchitis may develop a secondary infection which can become pneumonia.

    Those that may be at risk for pneumonia are:

    • Infants, babies and the elderly where there is diminished immunity and are more susceptible to a secondary infection.
    • Patients with lung or heart conditions, these can include patients with COPD, heart failure patients and those with asthma.
    • Diabetics may complicate to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome if bronchitis episodes remains too long [4].
    • Smokers are more susceptible to develop chest infections, which can lead to a bacterial infection after having bronchitis.

    Complications

    Asthma
    • Bronchitis Aggravates Asthma Asthma, an inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by hypersensitivity and intermittent narrowing of the airways, is a common cause of a persistent cough.[livehealthy.chron.com]
    • "Asthma in older adults" .[wikidoc.org]
    • ) LRI ( bronchitis , pneumonia ) Influenza Allergy Asthma Environmental irritants Transient airway hyperresponsiveness Foreign body SARS Chronic ( 8 wks) Postinfectious; pertussis Smoking and/or chronic bronchitis Postnasal discharge Asthma GERD ACEI[wikem.org]
    • Acute asthmatic bronchitis may happen as the result of an asthma attack, or it may be the cause of an asthma attack.[uhealthsystem.com]
    Bacterial Pneumonia
    • The pneumococcal shot can protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia.[marshfieldclinic.org]
    • It is important to have a doctor examine you for secondary bacterial pneumonia, which may require an antibiotic.[drugs.com]
    • Disease severity in patients with simultaneous influenza and bacterial pneumonia.[journals.plos.org]
    Bronchiectasis
    • Other causes of similar symptoms include asthma, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, and COPD.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Severe bronchitis and bronchiectasis—abnormal dilation of bronchi with some destruction of bronchial walls—may so interfere with the mother’s respiration that the extra strain put on her cardiorespiratory system by pregnancy may put her life in jeopardy[britannica.com]
    • […] breath , fever , chest discomfort [1] [2] Duration Up to 6 weeks [3] Causes Typically viral infection [1] Risk factors Tobacco smoke , dust, air pollution [2] Diagnostic method Based on symptoms [4] Similar conditions Asthma , pneumonia , bronchiolitis , bronchiectasis[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Moraxella catarrhalis and Mycoplasma pneumonia Atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia pneumonia and Chlamydia psittaci Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumonia and Moraxella Contributory or Predisposing Factors Bronchiectasis[physio-pedia.com]
    • Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis in adults who are not immunocompromised and do not have a serious underlying lung disease (for example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] or bronchiectasis) are also explored[nursingcenter.com]
    Bronchiolitis
    • In dogs, the bronchioles are tubes that act as airways into the lungs.[vetinfo.com]
    • Thesaurus Antonyms Related Words Synonyms Legend: Noun 1. bronchitis - inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes bronchospasm - a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy; associated with asthma and bronchitis bronchiolitis[thefreedictionary.com]
    • - JS Jonsson, JA Sigurdsson - journal of primary , 1997 - informahealthcare.com Bronchiolitis-associated mortality and estimates of respiratory syncytial virus—associated deaths among US children, 1979–1997 - DK Shay, RC Holman, GE Roosevelt - Journal[symptoma.com]
    • They branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles.[healthline.com]
    Bronchogenic Carcinoma
    • carcinoma - U Saffiotti, F Cefis, LH Kolb - Cancer research, 1968 - AACR Acute bronchitis: aetiology, symptoms and treatment - TJM Verheij, AA Kaptein, JD Mulder - Family practice, 1989 - Oxford Univ Press Antibiotics for acute bronchitis - SM Smith,[symptoma.com]
    Chronic Bronchitis
    • Most people with chronic bronchitis have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Having a history of lung infections can also predispose you to chronic bronchitis, leading to further lung damage and exacerbating chronic bronchitis symptoms. 14 Chronic bronchitis, compared to acute bronchitis, lasts for a longer period of time, since[articles.mercola.com]
    • Not so with chronic bronchitis.[health.com]
    • Treating chronic bronchitis Unfortunately, chronic bronchitis has no known cure.[medicalnewstoday.com]
    Cystic Fibrosis
    • Epidemiologie Geschlechtsverteilung Altersverteilung Selbsttest Acute bronchitis - RP Wenzel, AA Fowler III - New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 - Mass Medical Soc Acute and long-term amiloride inhalation in cystic fibrosis lung disease: a rational[symptoma.com]
    • This commonly occurs in people who smoke and in people with immune system problems, such as HIV infection, cystic fibrosis, and cancer.[uofmhealth.org]
    • fibrosis If you are prescribed antibiotics for bronchitis, it is likely to be a five-day course of amoxicillin, oxytetracycline or doxycycline.[emedmd.com]
    • fibrosis If you're prescribed antibiotics for bronchitis, it's likely to be a five-day course of amoxicillin or doxycycline.[nhs.uk]
    • Haemophilus, Moraxella catarrhalis and Mycoplasma pneumonia Atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia pneumonia and Chlamydia psittaci Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumonia and Moraxella Contributory or Predisposing Factors Bronchiectasis Cystic[physio-pedia.com]
    Influenza
    • Similar to influenza , acute bronchitis is transmitted person-to-person by droplets that are released into the air through coughs, sneezes, or talking.[belmarrahealth.com]
    • Get vaccinated against the influenza (flu) virus every year in the early fall in the U.S.[drugs.com]
    • Etiology Viruses ( 90% of cases) Influenza A and B Parainfluenza Adenovirus RSV Rhinovirus Coronavirus Metapneumovirus Bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Bordetella pertussis Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (in patients[amboss.com]
    • […] excluded by clinical evaluation or by CXR If all 5 are negative pneumonia is safely excluded: HR 100 RR 24 Temperature 38 (100.4) Exam findings consistent with focal consolidation, egophony, or fremitus Age 64yr Epidemiology Viruses are most common cause Influenza[wikem.org]
    Inspiration
    • It is possible that having irritated bronchial tubes for as long as a few months may inspire asthmatic conditions in some patients. [ citation needed ] In addition, if one starts coughing mucus tinged with blood, one should see a physician .[en.wikipedia.org]
    • General physical signs Barrel chest (increased anteroposterior diameter) Diaphragm appears lower and flatter Paradoxical inward movement of the lower ribs and visible interspaces during inspiration Sternum appears elevated The liver may become palpable[physio-pedia.com]
    Mycoplasma Pneumonia
    • A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Etiology Viruses ( 90% of cases) Influenza A and B Parainfluenza Adenovirus RSV Rhinovirus Coronavirus Metapneumovirus Bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Bordetella pertussis Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (in patients[amboss.com]
    • […] and is generally part of an acute URI viruses that cause acute bronchitis include: adenovirus coronavirus influenza A and B viruses parainfluenza virus respiratory syncytial virus coxsackievirus A21 rhinovirus viruses that cause rubella and measles Mycoplasma[medbullets.com]
    • […] bronchitis: aetiology, symptoms and treatment - TJM Verheij, AA Kaptein, JD Mulder - Family practice, 1989 - Oxford Univ Press Antibiotics for acute bronchitis - SM Smith, T Fahey, J Smucny - Database Syst Rev, 2004 - Wiley Online Library Detection of Mycoplasma[symptoma.com]
    • However, bacterial infections from strains like the Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrahalis can trigger this disease as well. 3 Long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette[articles.mercola.com]
    Pertussis
    • Temperature 38 (100.4) Exam findings consistent with focal consolidation, egophony, or fremitus Age 64yr Epidemiology Viruses are most common cause Influenza , paraflu, RSV, corona, adeno, rhino Bacterial cause occurs in Mycoplasma , C. pneumoniae , pertussis[wikem.org]
    • An exception is when acute bronchitis is due to pertussis.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Etiology Viruses ( 90% of cases) Influenza A and B Parainfluenza Adenovirus RSV Rhinovirus Coronavirus Metapneumovirus Bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Bordetella pertussis Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (in patients[amboss.com]
    • […] when people cough or by direct contact. [2] Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke , dust, and other air pollution . [2] A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis[en.wikipedia.org]
    Sinusitis
    • […] prescription d'antibiotiques contre la bronchite aiguë était d'environ 80 %. 5,600 fewer cases of child acute bronchitis une diminution de 5600 cas de bronchite aiguë chez les enfants; In 3 of these, moxifloxacin was used for treating less severe indications (sinusitis[dictionary.reverso.net]
    • Blocked sinuses Headaches Soreness and body aches Loss of appetite along with fatigue Repeated flare ups or exacerbation of symptoms especially in winter months seen in chronic bronchitis.[news-medical.net]
    • It may also occur in people with chronic sinusitis, allergies, or those with enlarged tonsils and adenoids.[uhealthsystem.com]
    • […] common cold, or Asthma Cough 5d is more suggestive of bronchitis than common cold Cough may persist for 10-20d Cough 3wk suggests asthma, COPD , pertussis, postnasal drip, GERD Often follows URI Differential Diagnosis Cough Acute ( 3 wks) URI (rhinitis, sinusitis[wikem.org]
    • Acute bronchitis often begins with an upper respiratory infection in the nose, sinuses, ears, or throat that is usually caused by a virus.[health.harvard.edu]
    Tuberculosis
    • In 1897, British citizen Charles Stevens went to South Africa hoping to cure himself of tuberculosis.[elsevier.com]
    • You may also be asked to have a chest X-ray, and in some cases a sputum culture (laboratory test to determine the presence of bacteria in the phlegm) may be done, especially if a more serious condition such as pneumonia or tuberculosis is suspected.[nativeremedies.com]
    • Additionally, she has clincal interests in tuberculosi ...[healthcare.utah.edu]
    • In rare cases, physicians may conduct tests to see whether the cause of the bloody sputum is a serious condition such as tuberculosis or lung cancer . [ citation needed ] Epidemiology [ edit ] Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. [3] [[en.wikipedia.org]
    • It was also found that the strongest predictor of this disease was a history of tuberculosis.[physio-pedia.com]
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  • Etiology

    Acute bronchitis most often caused by a viral infection. The most common viruses are Rhinovirus, Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, Parainfluenza virus, Corona virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus [1]. The acute form of bronchitis can also be the result of inhaling things that can irritate the bronchial tubes such as smoke and toxic fumes, including ammonia. Smoking is one of the major causes of acute bronchitis.

    Sometimes acute bronchitis can be caused by bacteria, such as Streptococcus. This can happen after a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, which does not get better. Acute bronchitis can last 3 to 10 days, but the cough can last several weeks after the infection is gone.

    Epidemiology

    In the general population almost 5% will develop acute bronchitis in the US, the most occurrences happen during the fall and winter months. One of the top 5 reasons for children to see their Pediatrician is for lower respiratory infections, which include both acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is seen in males and females equally.

    It is also seen in children under two years of age and then again between the ages of 9 and 15. Younger children exposed to second hand smoking and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are more susceptible to develop bronchitis [2]. Elder patients are more prone to bronchitis because of their relatively low Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV), thus tend to accumulate more air and bacteria compared to the younger population [3].

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Usually a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, can turn into acute bronchitis, producing excess mucous and a cough lasting for several weeks in 50% of those affected, and 25% have the cough for a month or more.

    An airway that is exposed to certain environmental agents, such as irritants or allergens, responds quickly to a cough and bronchospasm, followed by mucous production, edema and inflammation. This fact may explain why chronic bronchitis in children is actually asthma. The mucociliary clearance is a primary defense mechanism that helps protect the lungs from the damage caused by the inhalation of pollutants, pathogens and allergens.

    Prevention

    There is no way to prevent acute bronchitis from occurring but steps can be taken to reduce the risks. Smoking or being in a smoking environment can be a big trigger for those who have had episodes if bronchitis or whose pulmonary status is already compromised.

    Receiving an annual flu shot is also recommended. Children receiving pneumonia and flu vaccines controls protracted bacterial bronchitis and prevents recurrent coughing [10]. Avoiding the inhalation of noxious irritants, especially in enclosed areas.

    Summary

    Viruses, bacteria, and other agents can cause inflammation of the inner lining of the bronchial tubes, a condition which is referred to as acute bronchitis. Production of mucus causes one of the main symptoms - cough. Often acute bronchitis follows an upper respiratory infection.

    Patient Information

    Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the major airways into the lungs, which may be usually caused by bacteria and viruses.

    Common signs and symptoms are:

    Most cases of bronchitis are caused by a viral infection and resolve themselves within a few days to weeks.

    Self-assessment

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    References

    1. Albert RH. Diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis. Am Fam. Physician. 2010; 82(11):1345-50 (ISSN: 1532-0650)
    2. Ghosh R; Topinka J; Joad JP; Dostal M; Sram RJ; Hertz-Picciotto I. Air pollutants, genes and early childhood acute bronchitis. Mutat Res. 2013; 749(1-2):80-6 (ISSN: 0027-5107)
    3. Jivcu C, Gotfried M. Gemifloxacin use in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009;4:291-300.
    4. Homsi S; Milojkovic N; Alawad B; Homsi Y. Prolonged period of acute bronchitis with late progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome as possible result of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. J Ark Med Soc. 2012; 109(4):62-4 (ISSN: 0004-1858)
    5. Wenzel RP, Fowler AA 3rd. Clinical practice. Acute bronchitis. N Engl J Med. Nov 16 2006;355(20):2125-30.
    6. Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA. Antibiotic prescribing for adults with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis by ambulatory care physicians. JAMA. Sep 17 1997;278(11):901-4.
    7. Kroening-Roche JC; Soroudi A; Castillo EM; Vilke GM. Antibiotic and bronchodilator prescribing for acute bronchitis in the emergency department.J Emerg Med. 2012; 43(2):221-7 (ISSN: 0736-4679)
    8. Roth S; Gonzales R; Harding-Anderer T; Bloom FJ; Graf T; Stahl MS; Maselli JH; 
    9. Metlay JP. Unintended consequences of a quality measure for acute bronchitis. Am J Manag Care. 2012; 18(6):e217-24 (ISSN: 1936-2692)
    10. Llor C; Moragas A; Bayona C; Morros R; Pera H; Cots JM; Fernández Y; Miravitlles M; Boada A. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol.BMC Pulm Med. 2011; 11:38 (ISSN: 1471-2466)
    11. Priftis KN; Litt D; Manglani S; Anthracopoulos MB; Thickett K; Tzanakaki G; Fenton P; Syrogiannopoulos GA; Vogiatzi A; Douros K; Slack M; Everard ML. Bacterial bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in children: the impact of vaccination.Chest. 2013; 143(1):152-7 (ISSN: 1931-3543)

    • Acute bronchitis - RP Wenzel, AA Fowler III - New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 - Mass Medical Soc
    • Acute and long-term amiloride inhalation in cystic fibrosis lung disease: a rational approach to cystic fibrosis therapy - EM App, M King, R Helfesrieder, D Köhler - American Journal of , 1990 - Am Thoracic Soc
    • A method for the experimental induction of bronchogenic carcinoma - U Saffiotti, F Cefis, LH Kolb - Cancer research, 1968 - AACR
    • Acute bronchitis: aetiology, symptoms and treatment - TJM Verheij, AA Kaptein, JD Mulder - Family practice, 1989 - Oxford Univ Press
    • Antibiotics for acute bronchitis - SM Smith, T Fahey, J Smucny - Database Syst Rev, 2004 - Wiley Online Library
    • Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by two polymerase chain reactions and role of M. pneumoniae in acute respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients - M Ieven, D Ursi, H Van Bever, W Quint - Journal of infectious , 1996 - jid.oxfordjournals.org
    • Acute bronchiolitis in children - D Hubble, GR Osborn - British Medical Journal, 1941 - bmj.com
    • Albuterol delivered by metered-dose inhaler to treat acute bronchitis. - WJ Hueston - The Journal of family practice, 1994 - ukpmc.ac.uk
    • Antibiotics for acute bronchitis - SM Smith, T Fahey, J Smucny - Database Syst Rev, 2004 - Wiley Online Library
    • Acute exacerbations of asthma in adults: role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection - L Allegra, F Blasi, S Centanni, R Cosentini - European Respiratory , 1994 - ersj.org.uk
    • Acute bronchitis in the community: clinical features, infective factors, changes in pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity to histamine - DAR Boldy, SJ Skidmore, JG Ayres - Respiratory medicine, 1990 - Elsevier
    • Branhamella (Neisseria) catarrhalis--a lower respiratory tract pathogen? - MA Johnson, WL Drew, M Roberts - Journal of clinical , 1981 - Am Soc Microbiol
    • Acute infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis - P Ball, JM Harris, D Lowson, G Tillotson, R Wilson - Qjm, 1995 - Oxford Univ Press
    • A prospective analysis of 184 hemoptysis cases–diagnostic impact of chest x-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy - M Tsoumakidou, G Chrysofakis, I Tsiligianni - , 2006 - content.karger.com
    • Antibiotics for acute bronchitis - SM Smith, T Fahey, J Smucny - Database Syst Rev, 2004 - Wiley Online Library
    • Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae(strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis, and adult-onset asthma. - DL Hahn, RW Dodge - Journal of the American , 1991 - researchgate.net
    • Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4 - SW Crooks, DL Bayley, SL Hill - European Respiratory , 2001 - Wiley Online Library
    • Acute bronchitis in adults: how close do we come to its ætiology in general practice? - JS Jonsson, JA Sigurdsson - journal of primary , 1997 - informahealthcare.com
    • Bronchiolitis-associated mortality and estimates of respiratory syncytial virus—associated deaths among US children, 1979–1997 - DK Shay, RC Holman, GE Roosevelt - Journal of Infectious , 2001 - jid.oxfordjournals.org
    • Acute necrotizing pancreatitis and acute suppurative pancreatitis in the cat - RC Hill, TJ Winkle - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1993 - Wiley Online Library
    • A prospective analysis of 184 hemoptysis cases–diagnostic impact of chest x-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy - M Tsoumakidou, G Chrysofakis, I Tsiligianni - , 2006 - content.karger.com
    • A prospective analysis of 184 hemoptysis cases–diagnostic impact of chest x-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy - M Tsoumakidou, G Chrysofakis, I Tsiligianni - , 2006 - content.karger.com
    • A comparison of gemifloxacin and clarithromycin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and long-term clinical outcomes - R Wilson, JJ Schentag, P Ball, L Mandell - Clinical therapeutics, 2002 - Elsevier
    • Acute left ventricular dysfunction during unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation - F Lemaire, JL Teboul, L Cinotti, G Giotto - , 1988 - themostbeautifullest.com
    • Of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough: a prospective, double - B Kemmerich, R Eberhardt, H Stammer - Arzneimittel-Forschung, 2006 - cat.inist.fr
    • Abnormal transradiancy of one lung - WM Macleod - Thorax, 1954 - thorax.bmj.com
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    Media References

    1. Bronchitis, Public Domain

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