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Acute Erythroblastic Leukemia

Erythroleukemias


Presentation

  • Thus, these two patients had acute erythroblastic leukemia which differs from erythroleukemia (M6 of FAB classification) in which blast cells present myeloblastic characteristics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CD117 and CD43 are often positive, when myeloblasts are present.[wiki.clinicalflow.com]
  • Staging, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and summaries of Pitfalls in working with these pathologies are presented along with ample figures.[books.google.com]
  • It offers concise textual and extensive visual coverage of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic hematology disorders, with the neoplastic hematology sections presented according to the most recent WHO classifications.[books.google.es]
Splenomegaly
  • Typical symptoms are spongy and bleeding gums, anemia, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, moderate splenomegaly, joint and bone pain, and repeated infections. AML occurs most frequently in adolescents and young adults.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In erythroleukaemia: refractory anaemia, splenomegaly present for a long time before nucleated red cells appear in the blood. Investigations FBC shows pancytopenia.[patient.info]
  • His clinical examination revealed splenomegaly. He did not have any other significant findings on clinical examination. Opthalmic examination did not reveal any other abnormalities other than proptosis.[jahjournal.org]
  • Part of the Handbuch der Inneren Medizin book series (INNEREN, volume 2 / 6) Zusammenfassung 1912 publizierte Copelli einen Fall einer hämatologischen Systemerkrankung, gekennzeichnet durch progressive Anämie, Leukozytopenie und Splenomegalie mit Herden[link.springer.com]
  • Signs on examination were pallor in 25(78.12%) patients, jaundice in 10(31.25%) patients and organomegaly in 10(31.25%) patients: hepatosplenomegaly in 2(6.25%), only hepatomegaly in 5(15.62%) and only splenomegaly in 3(9.3%) patients.[ecancer.org]
Massive Splenomegaly
Anemia
  • Anemia and thrombocytopenia commonly occur. The central nervous system and other organs are occasionally invaded.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] ə] Etymology: Gk, erythros leukos, white, haima, blood Erythroleukemia erythroleukemia Di Guglielmo syndrome Hematology An acute myelocytic leukemia–FAB classification, M6, which is usually acquired affecting the elderly, but rarely also AD Clinical Anemia[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] with excess blasts and preceding or concurrent history of erythropoietin therapy for anemia (n 16).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This condition is called anemia, and causes patients to experience severe weakness and tiredness. Patients may have less than the normal number of white blood cells as well.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Differential Diagnosis: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, sideroblastic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia.[med-ed.virginia.edu]
Fever
  • Etymology: Gk, erythros leukos, white, haima, blood Erythroleukemia erythroleukemia Di Guglielmo syndrome Hematology An acute myelocytic leukemia–FAB classification, M6, which is usually acquired affecting the elderly, but rarely also AD Clinical Anemia, fever[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Signs & Symptoms Symptoms can vary from patient to patient, but the most common symptoms are: Fatigue Weight loss Easy bruising Fever Persistent bone or joint pain Some patients can also become anemic and display additional symptoms such as abnormal bleeding[knowcancer.com]
  • Other strong indicators include chills and fever, loss of weight and appetite, easy bruising and bleeding due to the abnormally low platelet levels, joint pains, headaches, confusion and vomiting.[medigest.uk]
  • Other symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite and weight, easy bleeding or bruising (due to lower than normal platelet levels), bone or joint pain, headaches, vomiting, and confusion.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Other typical symptoms include fever, pain in the joints and bones, and swelling of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. adj., adj leuke mic. Types of Leukemia .[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Refractory Anemia
  • anemia with excess blasts and preceding or concurrent history of erythropoietin therapy for anemia (n 16).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia, Monocytic Leukemia, and Erythroleukemia is to describe the cell characteristics of and differentiation between these various types of acute leukemia and other related diseases (refractory anemia with increase[web.archive.org]
  • We acknowledge that the category of refractory anemia with excess blasts and preceding/concurrent history of erythropoietin therapy used in this study is heterogeneous and not well characterized.[doi.org]
  • The risk of the disease is increased among people who have been exposed to massive doses of radiation and who have certain blood dyscrasias, such as polycythemia, primary thrombocytopenia, and refractory anemia. Hispanics are also at greater risk.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • anemia with excess blasts-2 (RAEB-2)).[pathologystudent.com]
Pallor
  • Pallor, sometimes petechiae, bruising, gum and nose bleeding, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, retinal haemorrhage. In erythroleukaemia: refractory anaemia, splenomegaly present for a long time before nucleated red cells appear in the blood.[patient.info]
  • The male : female ratio is 2.4:1. [2], [3], [4], [5] Clinical presentation of AML M6 is highly variable, varying from simple weakness, pallor, and fever to more severe complications such as hemorrhages, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia[jahjournal.org]
  • Signs on examination were pallor in 25(78.12%) patients, jaundice in 10(31.25%) patients and organomegaly in 10(31.25%) patients: hepatosplenomegaly in 2(6.25%), only hepatomegaly in 5(15.62%) and only splenomegaly in 3(9.3%) patients.[ecancer.org]
  • The clinical features are often relatively nonspecific, and include pallor, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly.[archivesofpathology.org]
Malaise
  • The major clinical manifestations of malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and leukocytosis are related to abnormal, excessive, unrestrained overgrowth of granulocytes in the bone marrow.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Ortuño; Maria Sola Category: Myeloid Neoplasms and acute leukemia (WHO 2016) Acute Myeloid Leukemia AML not otherwise specified Acute erythroid leukemia Published Date: 05/02/2016 A 38-year-old man was admitted because of cough, fever, headache, and malaise[imagebank.hematology.org]
  • A 65-year-old Asian/Caucasian female with a long history of stable CAD presented to her physician complaining of general malaise of several weeks duration.[academic.oup.com]
  • Six months after the initial diagnosis, by which time she had undergone 5 cycles of azacitidine treatment, she was admitted to our unit with high fever and malaise.[hoajonline.com]
Bleeding Gums
  • Typical symptoms are spongy and bleeding gums, anemia, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, moderate splenomegaly, joint and bone pain, and repeated infections. AML occurs most frequently in adolescents and young adults.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Petechiae
  • ICD-10 Codes C94.0 Acute erythremia and erythroleukemia Corresponding ICD-10-CM Codes (U.S. only) C94.0 Acute erythroid leukemia (effective October 01, 2015) Signs and Symptoms Anemia Circulating erythroblasts Easy bruising or bleeding Fatigue Fever Petechiae[seer.cancer.gov]
  • Pallor, sometimes petechiae, bruising, gum and nose bleeding, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, retinal haemorrhage. In erythroleukaemia: refractory anaemia, splenomegaly present for a long time before nucleated red cells appear in the blood.[patient.info]
  • ホジキンリンパ腫 non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation骨髄非破壊的移植 o opportunistic infection日和見感染 p paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)発作性寒冷血色素尿症 paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)発作性夜間血色素尿症 peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT)抹消血幹細胞移植 petechia[tokyo-med.ac.jp]
  • There were no petechiae, ecchymosis, or gum bleeding. There was no palpable lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly, and the rest of the physical examination was normal.[hematologyandoncology.net]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Associations There is an association with autoimmune abnormalities, eg arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, vasculitis, iritis, myositis. [ 5 ] No causal relationship has been found. [ 6 ] Management The approach to the treatment of acute erythroleukaemia[patient.info]

Workup

  • Analysis of genetic abnormalities : Erythroblastoma is thought to be genetic in nature; a physician may do a genetic workup on a patient to determine if their condition meets this criteria.[knowcancer.com]
  • Immunohistochemistry has a role in the workup of cases of AEL, particularly in cases in which the aspirate material is scant. Here we mention markers or applications not already addressed in the flow cytometry section above.[archivesofpathology.org]
  • In addition, we investigated the diagnostic utility of the adhesion marker, E-cadherin, in the workup of cases of PEL.[nature.com]
Enlargement of the Spleen
  • Additionally, patients may also show considerable enlargement of the spleen and liver, which can be noticed by the telltale swelling of the abdomen and can be easily detected by doctors in a physical examination.[medigest.uk]
  • Factors affecting leukemia staging and prognosis include: White blood cell or platelet count Age (advanced age may negatively affect prognosis) History of prior blood disorders Chromosome mutations or abnormalities Bone damage Enlarged liver or spleen[cancercenter.com]
Decreased Platelet Count
Macrocytic Anemia
Macrocytosis
  • Blood smear shows nucleated red cells at different stages with pathological features (macrocytosis, schistocytes, blast cells Bone marrow biopsy shows prevalence of erythroid elements with anaplastic/dysplastic changes and reduced megakaryocytes.[patient.info]
Capnocytophaga
  • This was the first case of bacteremia caused by chromosome-encoded CfxA3-beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga sputigena.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Megaloblastic Bone Marrow
  • Definition (CSP) leukemia commonly occurring after alkylating agent treatment; manifestations include pancytopenia, megaloblastic bone marrow, and nucleated red cells in peripheral marrow; patients usually have chromosomal abnormalities in marrow cells[fpnotebook.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment Treatment for acute erythroblastic leukemia depends on the features of the cancer cells present and on the extent of the disease, as well as on the age of the patient, his symptoms, and general health condition.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Treatment The treatment for this type of leukemia would largely depend of the cancer cell features presented as well as the extent or severity of the disease, the patient's age, symptoms along with general health condition.[medigest.uk]
  • Medical professionals think that prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation or previous chemotherapy treatments can increase a patient’s risk of contracting erythroleukemia.[knowcancer.com]
  • Treatment . The treatment of choice is systemic combination chemotherapy with a variety of antineoplastic drug regimens. The disease can also be treated by a bone marrow transplant after a remission is achieved with chemotherapy. Patient Care .[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] quickly accessing the very latest details on the diverse clinical and scientific aspects of hematopathology, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles For clinicians, fellows, and residents, correct diagnosis (and therefore correct treatment[books.google.es]

Prognosis

  • Of note was the finding that the percentage of myeloblasts, which may account for only a small fraction of the total marrow elements when the revised FAB criteria are applied, had no bearing on prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although der(1;7) has been reported as a cytogenetic factor for poor prognosis in t-MDS/AML, our patient showed a good response to chemotherapy and obtained complete remission, although longer observation is required to evaluate the prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Staging, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and summaries of Pitfalls in working with these pathologies are presented along with ample figures.[books.google.com]
  • Prognosis The prognosis for patients with erythroleukemia is typically poor—on average, the patient is given a 6-month survival period.[knowcancer.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • Etiology Genetic and chromosomal aberrations, such as are found in other leukemias, are characteristic.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • They are organised into groups, and further divided into clinical, etiological or histopathological sub-types.[orpha.net]
  • The etiology of erythroleukemia remains elusive, but the likelihood that it develops secondary to chemotherapeutic treatment or exposure to mutagenic agents is significant.[academic.oup.com]
  • However, these abnormalities are not specific for erythroleukemia and can present in other dyserythropoiesis etiologies such as myelodysplastic syndrome. The bone marrow is usually hypercellular and shows major dysplasia in the red cells.[hematologyandoncology.net]

Epidemiology

  • Case Name (click on case name to open) Comments Size M6-1 An example of M6 AML 10.5 Mb Epidemiology Erythroleukemia is predominantly a disease of adults. It comprises 5-6% of cases of AML.[wiki.clinicalflow.com]
  • 01, 2015) Signs and Symptoms Anemia Circulating erythroblasts Easy bruising or bleeding Fatigue Fever Petechiae Shortness of breath Weakness Diagnostic Exams Immunophenotyping Lumbar puncture Peripheral blood smear Progression and Transformation None Epidemiology[seer.cancer.gov]
  • This sort of change can result from an inadequate supply of any of the four nucleotides in DNA, and it is suggested that an inadequate supply of mutagenic cytosine could be responsible for all the changes seen. [ 1 ] Epidemiology Incidence It is uncommon[patient.info]
  • Epidemiology Acute erythroid leukemia is rare, accounting for only 3–5% of all acute myeloid leukemia cases.[checkrare.com]
  • […] karyotypes and a history of myelodysplastic syndrome. [9] Prognosis is worse in elderly patients, those with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome, and in patients who had previously received chemotherapy for the treatment of a different neoplasm. [1] [11] Epidemiology[ipfs.io]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia Symptoms Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia Pathophysiology[news-medical.net]
  • […] cells (blasts) Chronic leukemia -Slow onset -Occurs ONLY IN ADULTS -Longer course -Composed of mature cells classification of leukemias acute leukemias picture chronic leukemias picture what is the def, of acute leukemia what causes it and what is the pathophysiology[quizlet.com]
  • What aberrant molecular mechanisms might underlie the etiology and pathophysiology of this leukemia? Lenalidomide was chosen to treat this patient. What are some other novel treatments for refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? Possible Answers 1.[academic.oup.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Since this form of cancer is very rare and its causes are largely unknown, no specific preventive measures can be recommended.[encyclopedia.com]
  • They eventually crowd out normal, healthy blood cells and prevent them from being produced. AML can accumulate in the blood stream and organs such as the lymph nodes, brain, liver, kidneys, ovaries, testicles, and skin.[seattlecca.org]
  • Bondurant, Erythropoietin retards DNA breakdown and prevents programmed death in erythroid progenitor cells, Science, 248 (1990), pp. 378–381. [Google Scholar] C. Lacombe, and P.[mmnp-journal.org]
  • Therefore, the p53 pathway may play an important role in the erythroid lineage, improving the efficiency of erythropoiesis and preventing malignant transformation [ 14, 15 ].[hoajonline.com]
  • While farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) prevent essential modification of Ras proteins so critically important Ras signaling is disrupted in malignant cells, the efficacy of FTIs has not been overwhelming. 10 , 11 Table 2 Bone Marrow Report Specimen[academic.oup.com]

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