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Acute Monocytic Leukemia

Acute Monoblastic Leukemia


Presentation

Fever
  • Here, we report a case of spontaneous remission of AML in a 47-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient who presented with a few weeks history of recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Seek prompt medical attention if you have signs of dehydration -- such as reduced urination, lightheadedness or fainting -- or if you have a fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or jaundice.[livestrong.com]
  • Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy.[icd10data.com]
Anemia
  • Two had acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), one had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one had refractory anemia, and the other had juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bone marrow suppression is a common symptom of chemotherapy, which might lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Patients are also at risk of fatal opportunistic infections and mucositis.[news-medical.net]
  • Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy.[icd10data.com]
Fatigue
  • Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy.[icd10data.com]
  • Anemia is a condition when there is a low number of red cells in the blood which can cause fatigue and shortness of breath.[lls.org]
  • The decrease in normal cells causes the symptoms of leukemia, which may include: Fatigue and being pale results from a decreased number of red blood cells, known as anemia Fever due to the disease itself or from infection because there are a decreased[curesearch.org]
  • Mouth sores are horrible as was the fatigue. I had four rounds of consolidation (November, December 2014, January, February 2015) after this, high dose cytarabine and the…more Read Rhonda's Story Fetching more entries....[blogforacure.com]
Pallor
  • Symptoms Symptoms can include : a high fever a large number of infections over a short period breathlessness fatigue and confusion hyperhidrosis (sweating a lot) pain in the joints, and perhaps also the bones pallor skin bruising easily slurred speech[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Clinical symptoms The majority of our patients presented with pallor and fatigue. Bleeding, both mucosal and cutaneous, was most commonly seen in the promyelocytic and the monocytic leukemias.[indianjcancer.com]
  • Pallor may be obvious. Signs of infection can be nonspecific. Fever or pneumonia may present. Thrombocytopenia often causes petechiae on the lower limbs. DIC may aggravate the situation and cause larger lesions.[patient.info]
  • Children and adolescents suffering from AML initially experience general symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and pallor. This is due to the lack of red blood cells (anaemia), the function of which it is to carry oxygen to cells throughout the body.[kinderkrebsinfo.de]
  • Skin Findings in the skin include the presence of petechiae ecchymosis due to thrombocytopenia and pallor due to anemia. It can result in leukocytoclastic vasculitis.[lecturio.com]
Refractory Anemia
  • Two had acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), one had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one had refractory anemia, and the other had juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia Completed NCT00052299 Phase 3 cytarabine;etoposide;gemtuzumab ozogamicin;idarubicin;mitoxantrone hydrochloride 18 Daunorubicin & Cytarabine /- Zosuquidar inTreating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Refractory[malacards.org]
  • anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB)移行型芽球増加型不応性貧血 remission induction寛解導入 retrovirus レトロウイルス rouleaux formation連銭形成 s severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)重症免疫不全症候群 sickle cell anemia鎌状赤血球貧血 sideroblastic anemia鉄芽球性貧血 stem cell transplantation[tokyo-med.ac.jp]
Polydipsia
  • We describe a 69-year-old man who presented with a four-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. Plasma vasopressin levels were undetectable, and a dehydration test was abnormal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bleeding Gums
  • This may include bruising without any obvious cause, heavy periods in women, bleeding gums, and frequent nosebleeds. Blood spots or rashes on the skin (petechiae). Feeling generally unwell and run down, perhaps with a sore throat or mouth.[macmillan.org.uk]
  • Symptoms can include: pale skin tiredness breathlessness frequent infections unusual and frequent bleeding, such as bleeding gums or nosebleeds In more advanced cases, AML can make you extremely vulnerable to life-threatening infections or serious internal[nhs.uk]
  • Leukaemia cutis is an uncommon condition due to infiltration of the skin. [ 10 ] Gingivitis is common, with swollen, bleeding gums. This may lead to initial presentation at the dentist.[patient.info]
Gingival Hypertrophy
  • Marked elevations of LDH is seen in CNS involvement Oropharynx Monocytic subtypes typically show the presence of gingival hypertrophy. Organomegaly Lymphadenopathy is rare in AML. It is characterized by the absence of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.[lecturio.com]
  • Occasionally, a dentist will refer a patient because of gingival hypertrophy.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]
  • Patient 2 A 54-year-old man presents with gingival hypertrophy and bleeding. At presentation his WBC is 39 000/μL with 60% monoblasts; the hemoglobin is 7.9 g/dL, and the platelet count is 6000/μL.[bloodjournal.org]
Tachycardia
  • Physical Examination Ecchymosis and oozing from IV sites (DIC, possible acute promyelocytic leukemia) Fever and tachycardia (signs of infection) Papilledema, retinal infiltrates, cranial nerve abnormalities (CNS leukemia) Poor dentition, dental abscesses[slideshare.net]
Petechiae
  • Blood spots or rashes on the skin (petechiae). Feeling generally unwell and run down, perhaps with a sore throat or mouth. Having a fever and sweats.[macmillan.org.uk]
  • […] number of red blood cells, known as anemia Fever due to the disease itself or from infection because there are a decreased number of healthy white blood cells, known as neutropenia Bruising or bleeding from decreased platelets, known as thrombocytopenia Petechiae[curesearch.org]
  • Thrombocytopenia often causes petechiae on the lower limbs. DIC may aggravate the situation and cause larger lesions. Petechiae are small dots, purpura is larger and ecchymoses are larger bruises. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly may be found.[patient.info]
  • Exam reveals palor and scattered petechiae. Found to have 95,000 WBC with HCT of 22 and platelet count of 22,000. Chem panel unremarkable.[slideshare.net]
  • The symptoms of all types of leukemia are generally the same and include: being very tired and weak swollen gums swollen lymph glands (or nodes) infections (like bronchitis or tonsillitis ) that keep coming back a fever night sweats easy bruising or petechiae[kidshealth.org]
Purpura
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
  • […] uremic syndrome (HUS)溶血性尿毒性症候群 hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS)血球貪食症候群 hemophilia血友病 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia遺伝性出血性末梢血管拡張症(オスラー病) hereditary spherocytosis (HS)遺伝性球状赤血球症 hiatus leukemicus白血病裂孔 hyperviscosity高粘稠度 i idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura[tokyo-med.ac.jp]
  • Petechiae are small dots, purpura is larger and ecchymoses are larger bruises. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly may be found. Lymphadenopathy is less common.[patient.info]
  • Extensive purpura is present on the soles of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia and DIC 47.[slideshare.net]
Epistaxis
  • The symptoms include general weakness, increased infections and episodes of bleeding, especially from the gums and epistaxis. Increased fatigue and weakness is attributed to anemia and usually precedes AML.[lecturio.com]
Polyuria
  • We describe a 69-year-old man who presented with a four-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. Plasma vasopressin levels were undetectable, and a dehydration test was abnormal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • However only 260 cases were analysed for the study as the diagnostic workup was complete in these cases. Clinical details were obtained by going through the cases records.[indianjcancer.com]
Leukocytes Increased
  • Lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia reoccurred 7 months later, and then leukocytes increased gradually. The BM showed the blasts had typical Auer bodies, positive for peroxidase and non-specific esterase.[diagnosticpathology.biomedcentral.com]
Decreased Platelet Count
  • Bleeding Bleeding is present due to the decreased platelet counts or due to DIC. DIC is predominantly seen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3).[lecturio.com]

Treatment

  • During treatment we observed rapidly rising peripheral blast counts and the development of an acute abdomen. Ultrasound examination revealed splenomegaly due to diffuse cellular infiltration and spleen rupture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • We present the case given its rarity, occasional misdiagnosis and poor prognosis. Whether this complex karyotype resulted in such lymphoma-like morphologic features remains to be determined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Although the etiology of this spleen rupture remains uncertain, in view of our data we suggest special caution, when further testing this therapy protocol in acute leukemias with monocytic subtype and high peripheral blast cell counts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology & Etiology of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Higher Prevalence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Males Males have more predominance when compared to females; it usually affects individuals above the age of 65 years.[lecturio.com]
  • […] mutations in the second tyrosine kinase domain, compared to other subtypes (26.4% overall), and such mutations are associated with an unfavorable outcome. 40 - 43 Several reports of small numbers of patients have suggested that despite their potential etiologic[jco.ascopubs.org]
  • Epidemiology and etiology. In: Pui CH, editor. Chilhood leukemias. UK: Cambridge University Press; 1999. pp. 38-52. 6. Advani SH, Jussawala DJ, D Nagaraj Rao, Gangadharan P, Shetty PA.[indianjcancer.com]

Epidemiology

  • Case Name (click on case name to open) Comments Size M5_1 M5 AML 5.59 MB M5_2 AML M5b 7.74MB Epidemiology Acute monoblastic leukemia comprises 5-8% of cases of AML. It may occur at any age but is most common in young individuals.[wiki.clinicalflow.com]
  • A study of 1126 leukemic cases - Epidemiologic and end-result analysis. Indian J Cancer 1979;16:8-17. 7. Nakase K, Bradstock K, Sartor M, Gottlieb D, Byth K, Kita K, et al.[indianjcancer.com]
  • "The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects.". In Lilienfeld AM (ed.). Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics. New York: Oxford University Press. p. I. ISBN 978-0-19-503448-6. Aoki K; Kurihars M; Hayakawa N (1992).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology AML is the most common acute leukaemia in adults. The incidence of the AMLs in European adults is 5-8 cases per 100,000.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • China. 2 Department of Pathophysiology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524023, P.R. China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia Symptoms Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia Pathophysiology[news-medical.net]
  • Cytogenetics remains a key test to establish prognosis, understand pathophysiology, and, in many cases, guide therapy.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]
  • Acute basophilic leukemia Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis Myeloid sarcoma Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome Transient abnormal myelopoiesis Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm Pathophysiology[lecturio.com]

Prevention

  • However, a broad caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD.fmk, could not prevent WSPIS-induced apoptosis. These data imply that mechanism(s) other than caspase might be involved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although this initial phase of infection generally causes no symptoms at all, approximately 20 to 30 percent of people notice symptoms about 1 to 3 months after contracting the virus, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[livestrong.com]
  • Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Unknown status NCT00002658 Phase 3 amsacrine;cyclophosphamide;cytarabine;daunorubicin hydrochloride;etoposide;idarubicin;mitoxantrone hydrochloride;thioguanine;tretinoin 7 Caspofungin Versus Fluconazole in Preventing[malacards.org]
  • Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Learn about the risk factors for childhood leukemia and if there are things that can be done to help lower the risk. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Know the signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia.[m.cancer.org]

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