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Acute Monocytic Leukemia

Acute Monoblastic Leukemia


Presentation

  • The leukemic infiltrates in the wall of the stomach presented as intraluminal polyps, while the leukemic infiltration of the liver was strictly confined to the portal vessels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with an acute monocytic leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We encountered a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented at 29 weeks' gestation with acute monocytic leukemia with t(9;11). She was managed conservatively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of AMFR on the regulation of proliferation in an acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP‑1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with a 7-month history of progressively developing erythematous macules and slightly elevated papules widely distributed over the trunk, neck, face, and thighs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Here, we report a case of spontaneous remission of AML in a 47-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient who presented with a few weeks history of recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
  • Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy.[icd10data.com]
  • Having a fever and sweats. Rare symptoms include: aching joints and bones raised bluish-purple areas under the skin swollen gums enlarged lymph nodes.[macmillan.org.uk]
Anemia
  • Belfast City Hospital, Belfast Health & Social Care Trust, Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7AB, Northern Ireland, UK. [email protected] Abstract An 86-year-old man presented with acute hepatic failure, worsening thrombocytopenia, and anemia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two had acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), one had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one had refractory anemia, and the other had juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bone marrow suppression is a common symptom of chemotherapy, which might lead to anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Patients are also at risk of fatal opportunistic infections and mucositis.[news-medical.net]
  • Patients typically present with anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever and fatigue. This type of leukemia frequently responds to aggressive therapy.[icd10data.com]
Pallor
  • Pallor may be obvious. Signs of infection can be nonspecific. Fever or pneumonia may present. Thrombocytopenia often causes petechiae on the lower limbs. DIC may aggravate the situation and cause larger lesions.[patient.info]
  • Clinical symptoms The majority of our patients presented with pallor and fatigue. Bleeding, both mucosal and cutaneous, was most commonly seen in the promyelocytic and the monocytic leukemias.[indianjcancer.com]
  • Physical Findings Gingival involvement (especially in the monocytic variants (M4 or M5)) Rare hepatosplenomegaly or LAD Pallor, petechiae, ecchymoses Bone tenderness Retinal hemorrhage CNS infiltration (more common in M4 and M5) Skin, soft tissue infiltration[slideshare.net]
  • Head, ears, eyes, nose and throat (HEENT) exam should focus on exam of the oropharynx particularly looking for pallor, suggesting anemia, or petechiae/bleeding, suggesting thrombocytopenia.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Refractory Anemia
  • Two had acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), one had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one had refractory anemia, and the other had juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Malaise
  • Case #1 52 yo M no significant PMHx presents with general malaise for several days, headache and shortness of breath. Exam reveals palor and scattered petechiae. Found to have 95,000 WBC with HCT of 22 and platelet count of 22,000.[slideshare.net]
Bleeding Gums
  • This may include bruising without any obvious cause, heavy periods in women, bleeding gums, and frequent nosebleeds. Blood spots or rashes on the skin (petechiae). Feeling generally unwell and run down, perhaps with a sore throat or mouth.[macmillan.org.uk]
  • Symptoms can include: pale skin tiredness breathlessness frequent infections unusual and frequent bleeding, such as bleeding gums or nosebleeds In more advanced cases, AML can make you extremely vulnerable to life-threatening infections or serious internal[nhs.uk]
  • Leukaemia cutis is an uncommon condition due to infiltration of the skin. [ 10 ] Gingivitis is common, with swollen, bleeding gums. This may lead to initial presentation at the dentist.[patient.info]
Gingival Hypertrophy
  • Occasionally, a dentist will refer a patient because of gingival hypertrophy.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]
  • Patient 2 A 54-year-old man presents with gingival hypertrophy and bleeding. At presentation his WBC is 39 000/μL with 60% monoblasts; the hemoglobin is 7.9 g/dL, and the platelet count is 6000/μL.[bloodjournal.org]
Petechiae
  • Blood spots or rashes on the skin (petechiae). Feeling generally unwell and run down, perhaps with a sore throat or mouth. Having a fever and sweats.[macmillan.org.uk]
  • […] of red blood cells , known as anemia Fever due to the disease itself or from infection because there are a decreased number of healthy white blood cells , known as neutropenia Bruising or bleeding from decreased platelets, known as thrombocytopenia Petechiae[curesearch.org]
  • […] include: A pale complexion from anemia caused by a low red cell count Prolonged bleeding and easy bruising caused by a very low platelet count called thrombocytopenia , which may also include the appearance of pinhead-size red spots on the skin called petechiae[aamds.org]
  • The symptoms of all types of leukemia are generally the same and include: being very tired and weak swollen gums swollen lymph glands (or nodes) infections (like bronchitis or tonsillitis ) that keep coming back a fever night sweats easy bruising or petechiae[kidshealth.org]
Purpura
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
  • Petechiae are small dots, purpura is larger and ecchymoses are larger bruises. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly may be found. Lymphadenopathy is less common.[patient.info]

Workup

  • However only 260 cases were analysed for the study as the diagnostic workup was complete in these cases. Clinical details were obtained by going through the cases records.[indianjcancer.com]
Polyps
  • The leukemic infiltrates in the wall of the stomach presented as intraluminal polyps, while the leukemic infiltration of the liver was strictly confined to the portal vessels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • During treatment we observed rapidly rising peripheral blast counts and the development of an acute abdomen. Ultrasound examination revealed splenomegaly due to diffuse cellular infiltration and spleen rupture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor lysis syndrome can occur after treatment of fast-growing cancers. Early detection of tumor lysis is crucial to minimize the toxic effects on organs and potentially life-threatening complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Seven months after GO treatment, the disease relapsed and the patient developed pancytopenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, single or combination treatment of THP-1 LSC-engrafted mice with cytarabine and anti-CD47 antibody resulted in targeting of LSCs and depletion of leukemia cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results were analyzed with respect to the patients' clinical features and treatment outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The NPM1 mutation is generally used as a molecular marker in the prognosis evaluation of a patient with AML. Here, we report a different case. He was first diagnosed with NPM1 mutation-positive acute monocytic leukemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Leukemias with DNMT3A mutations constituted a group of poor prognosis with elderly disease onset and of promonocytic as well as monocytic predominance among AML-M5 individuals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Duplication of 3q13.31-qter might be a non-random chromosomal abnormality with concomitant submicroscopic deletion at 3q13.31 occurring in rare cases of acute monocytic leukemia, being associated with adverse prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is thus suggested that, in common with the original MLL/SEPT9 cases, monocytic differentiation and a poor prognosis may also be associated with acute myeloid leukemia with the variant MLL/SEPT9 fusion transcript.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This condition is associated with a very poor prognosis and is often difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 33 years old female with leukemia cutis preceding the onset of acute monocytic leukemia by four months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Although the etiology of this spleen rupture remains uncertain, in view of our data we suggest special caution, when further testing this therapy protocol in acute leukemias with monocytic subtype and high peripheral blast cell counts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Gov't MeSH terms Animals Cell Line, Tumor Culture Media/chemistry Culture Media/pharmacology Humans Inflammation/etiology Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/metabolism Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/pathology Male Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Microscopy, Electron[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology and etiology. In: Pui CH, editor. Chilhood leukemias. UK: Cambridge University Press; 1999. pp. 38-52. 6. Advani SH, Jussawala DJ, D Nagaraj Rao, Gangadharan P, Shetty PA.[indianjcancer.com]

Epidemiology

  • Case Name (click on case name to open) Comments Size M5_1 M5 AML 5.59 MB M5_2 AML M5b 7.74MB Epidemiology Acute monoblastic leukemia comprises 5-8% of cases of AML . It may occur at any age but is most common in young individuals.[wiki.clinicalflow.com]
  • A study of 1126 leukemic cases - Epidemiologic and end-result analysis. Indian J Cancer 1979;16:8-17. 7. Nakase K, Bradstock K, Sartor M, Gottlieb D, Byth K, Kita K, et al.[indianjcancer.com]
  • Epidemiology AML is the most common acute leukaemia in adults. The incidence of the AMLs in European adults is 5-8 cases per 100,000.[patient.info]
  • Epidemiology AML is the most common leukemia subtype, with an estimated 13,000 new diagnoses yearly in the USA. 1 It is also a disease of older adults, commonly defined as people 60 years of age, with a median age at diagnosis of 67 years. 2 This translates[haematologica.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • China. 2 Department of Pathophysiology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524023, P.R. China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia Symptoms Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia Pathophysiology[news-medical.net]
  • Cytogenetics remains a key test to establish prognosis, understand pathophysiology, and, in many cases, guide therapy.[oncologynurseadvisor.com]

Prevention

  • However, a broad caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD.fmk, could not prevent WSPIS-induced apoptosis. These data imply that mechanism(s) other than caspase might be involved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention of nutrient starvation-induced apoptosis of leukemic cells by bone marrow adipocytes, as well as the metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in this process, was investigated using various analytic techniques.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Learn about the risk factors for childhood leukemia and if there are things that can be done to help lower the risk. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Know the signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia.[m.cancer.org]
  • Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Learn about the risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia and what you might be able to do to help lower your risk. Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Know the signs and symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia.[m.cancer.org]
  • There’s really nothing you can do to prevent leukemia . It’s cancer of your blood cells caused by a rise in the number of white blood cells in your body. They crowd out the red blood cells and platelets your body needs to be healthy.[webmd.com]

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