Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Acute Peritonitis


Presentation

  • There were positive correlations between PD effluent CA125 concentrations and total WBC on presentation (r 0.41, p CONCLUSION: We did not find any additional diagnostic or prognostic benefit for measuring effluent CA125 in PD patients presenting with[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Valvular cardiomyopathy can present a diagnostic challenge in the absence of overt cardiac symptoms. This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute peritonitis associated with vomiting and abdominal distension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case report is presented of a young male adolescent patient with a ruptured mesothelial splenic cyst causing acute peritonitis. Abdominal ultrasound and CT-scan are very useful tools to obtain the preoperative diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report here with a case of gallbladder vein thrombosis presenting as acute peritonitis in a 75-year-old man.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case in a 36-year-old woman is to the best of our knowledge the first report of a large CFP confined to the mesentery, which, because of torsion, led to acute peritonitis and emergency laparotomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Abstract Five patients receiving penicillin V potassium or a cephalosporin antibiotic for 18 hours to 22 days developed fever, marked leukocytosis, and signs and symptoms that suggested right-lower-quadrant peritoneal irritation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She had symptoms of fever and chilling sensation, general myalgia, and vomiting during three days. The autopsy revealed several needle marks in the lower abdomen and 180ml of bloody exudate in the abdominal cavity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, increased heart and respiratory rate, and feces may not be passed. Dehydration, hypovolemia, and sepsis may result in decreased body temperature and death. 2 Signs of shock may develop within a few hours.[gopetsamerica.com]
  • Ascitic fluid (or ascites) is a fluid that abnormally accumulates in the peritoneal cavity, commonly in patients with end-stage liver damage Common signs and symptoms of Spontaneous Peritonitis are abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, chills, nausea,[dovemed.com]
  • Physical Examination Vital signs HR: tachycardia BP: hypotension RR: increased and shallow Temp : elevated Neurologic Normal to decreased mentation Skin Pale Flushed Diaphoretic Cardiovascular Pulse thready or wear or may be bounding in presence of fever[nursingcrib.com]
Chills
  • She had symptoms of fever and chilling sensation, general myalgia, and vomiting during three days. The autopsy revealed several needle marks in the lower abdomen and 180ml of bloody exudate in the abdominal cavity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ascitic fluid (or ascites) is a fluid that abnormally accumulates in the peritoneal cavity, commonly in patients with end-stage liver damage Common signs and symptoms of Spontaneous Peritonitis are abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, chills, nausea,[dovemed.com]
  • SBP: history of cirrhosis or ascites, fever, mental status changes, abdominal pain, chills, nausea/vomiting, GI bleed Secondary bacterial peritonitis: may be clinically indistinguishab...[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Other symptoms may include: Fever and chills Passing little or no stools or gas Excessive fatigue Passing less urine Nausea and vomiting Racing heartbeat Shortness of breath The health care provider will perform a physical exam.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Pain may persist for several hours and is worsened by movement or pressure on the abdomen Board-like rigidity of the abdomen, due to contraction of the muscles of the abdominal wall Swollen or bloated abdomen Chills and fever, with profuse perspiration[healthcentral.com]
Severe Pain
  • Acute peritonitis is accompanied by a severe pain. The dog usually walks with a stiff gait and the abdominal muscles are rigid in an attempt to guard the abdomen.[gopetsamerica.com]
  • Conversely, secondary peritonitis often presents with prominent symptoms, including severe pain.[uspharmacist.com]
  • Peritonitis Other names Surgical abdomen, acute abdomen [1] Peritonitis from tuberculosis Pronunciation Specialty Emergency medicine, general surgery Symptoms Severe pain, swelling of the abdomen, fever [2] [3] Complications Shock, acute respiratory distress[en.wikipedia.org]
Rigor
  • —Usually chilly sensations, or a marked rigor, announce the presence of peritonitis.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • Fever/rigors. Rash or itching. Urinary symptoms. Recent weight loss. Past medical and surgical history/medication. Gynaecological and obstetric history: Contraception (including intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) use). Last menstrual period.[patient.info]
High Fever
  • A high fever is present in the initial stages but in severe peritonitis there may be hypothermia. Tachycardia is usually present. The classic abdominal signs are tenderness on palpation, guarding and rebound tenderness.[patient.info]
Dyspnea
  • Later, paralysis of the intestine leads to bloating, no longer depart feces and gas, difficulty breathing (dyspnea). General condition progressively deteriorated. Rapidly growing phenomenon of dehydration and intoxication.[survinat.com]
Sputum
  • His symptoms, sputum quantity, and chest radiologic appearance improved markedly after 3 weeks of antituberculous therapy, and HAART was initiated on the fourth week.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • The old man with sudden continuous abdominal pain resorted to the emergency room and treated for peritonitis associated with acute cholecystitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of an 80-year-old woman who underwent an emergency laparotomy for lower abdominal pain and signs of acute peritonitis, which revealed intraperitoneal rupture of an infected urachal cyst.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is often difficult to ascertain whether abdominal pain in an SLE patient is due to lupus peritonitis or to an underlying cause requiring surgery.[link.springer.com]
  • A 55-year-old Japanese woman receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was admitted to our service with abdominal pain and cloudy peritoneal fluid.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On admission she was alert and aware of the situation, but her general condition was rather poor and she reported diffuse abdominal pain.[tidsskriftet.no]
Vomiting
  • This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute peritonitis associated with vomiting and abdominal distension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She had symptoms of fever and chilling sensation, general myalgia, and vomiting during three days. The autopsy revealed several needle marks in the lower abdomen and 180ml of bloody exudate in the abdominal cavity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nausea and vomiting is an early symptom, the latter causing great pain. In the early stage of the disease, diarrhea is a frequent symptom, but soon gives way to obstinate constipation.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • During the same period there is usually vomiting (often uncontrollable) eaten food and bile. Gagging greatly increase the pain in his stomach. Later, vomiting can be a "stool". Involuntary patient takes a fixed position.[survinat.com]
Nausea
  • Nausea and vomiting is an early symptom, the latter causing great pain. In the early stage of the disease, diarrhea is a frequent symptom, but soon gives way to obstinate constipation.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • Ascitic fluid (or ascites) is a fluid that abnormally accumulates in the peritoneal cavity, commonly in patients with end-stage liver damage Common signs and symptoms of Spontaneous Peritonitis are abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, chills, nausea,[dovemed.com]
  • Nausea and vomiting Physical Examination Vital signs HR: tachycardia BP: hypotension RR: increased and shallow Temp : elevated Neurologic Normal to decreased mentation Skin Pale Flushed Diaphoretic Cardiovascular Pulse thready or wear or may be bounding[nursingcrib.com]
Constipation
  • In the early stage of the disease, diarrhea is a frequent symptom, but soon gives way to obstinate constipation. Micturition is frequent, the urine being scanty and high-colored. The appearance of the face is somewhat characteristic.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • Abdominal tenderness Abdominal distension Fever Low urine output Point tenderness Thirst Fluid in the abdomen Constipation Inability to pass faeces gas Signs of shock in extreme cases. Diagnoses Physical examination and medical history.[cahabavalleysurgical.com]
  • From the clinical manifestation data, of 148 patients 100% were having abdominal pain, 52% were experiencing nausea, 48,6% were experiencing vomit, 9,5% were experiencing constipation, 9,5% were experiencing diarrhea, 66,2% were experiencing fever and[repository.unair.ac.id]
  • Constipation is a common condition, save in tubercular peritonitis, when diarrhea prevails. There is nearly always pain or uneasiness in some portion of the abdomen.[henriettes-herb.com]
Acute Abdomen
  • Tuberculous peritonitis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in HIV-infected patients on antiviral therapy, especially in patients with known underlying TB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Infected urachal cysts with intraperitoneal rupture are often misdiagnosed as a common acute abdomen and result in emergency exploratory laparotomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Over a two-year period, the "acute abdomen" presentation accounted for 5.2% of all patients with C difficile colitis at our institutions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Peritonitis, acute: Sudden inflammation of the peritoneum that results in abrupt abdominal pain (acute abdomen).[medicinenet.com]
Tachycardia
  • Nausea and vomiting Physical Examination Vital signs HR: tachycardia BP: hypotension RR: increased and shallow Temp : elevated Neurologic Normal to decreased mentation Skin Pale Flushed Diaphoretic Cardiovascular Pulse thready or wear or may be bounding[nursingcrib.com]
  • She had a low-grade fever (38.3 C), slight tachycardia (regular pulse of 83 beats per minute), slightly reduced oxygen saturation in ambient air (89 %) and normal blood pressure (151/83 mm Hg).[tidsskriftet.no]
  • […] experiencing vomit, 9,5% were experiencing constipation, 9,5% were experiencing diarrhea, 66,2% were experiencing fever and 5,4% were experiencing flatulence. 65% of patients had higher body temperature than normal ( 37,3 ºC), 62,8% of patients had tachycardia[repository.unair.ac.id]
Hypotension
  • Nausea and vomiting Physical Examination Vital signs HR: tachycardia BP: hypotension RR: increased and shallow Temp : elevated Neurologic Normal to decreased mentation Skin Pale Flushed Diaphoretic Cardiovascular Pulse thready or wear or may be bounding[nursingcrib.com]
  • Assess vital signs frequently, noting unresolved or progressing hypotension, decreased pulse pressure, tachycardia, fever, tachypnea. Signs of impending septic shock.[nurseslabs.com]
  • As previously mentioned, hypovolemia may occur in the absence of treatment, which may ultimately result in hypotension and shock.[uspharmacist.com]
Arthritis
  • Semin Arthritis Rheum 9:237–247 Google Scholar 8. Martinez D, Lowe R (1991) Case report: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) serositis mimicking acute cholecystitis. Clin Radiol 44:434–435 Google Scholar 9.[link.springer.com]
  • Melior Discovery inflammation/arthritis Zymosan-A Induced Peritonitis Leukocyte infiltration into a site of injury or irritation is an integral part of an inflammatory process associated with the peritonitis response.[meliordiscovery.com]
Hippocratic Facies
  • The patient’s face becomes drawn into the masklike appearance typical of hippocratic facies. Death occurs within days.[msdmanuals.com]

Workup

  • Irrespective of the chosen approach, all patients underwent the same preoperative workup (chest X-rays, EKG, and routine blood tests).[wjes.biomedcentral.com]
Pneumoperitoneum
  • There is no compelling clinical evidence that specific modifications of the pneumoperitoneum alter immunologic response...presupposing appropriate perioperative measures and hemodynamic stability, there are no contraindication to create a pneumoperitoneum[wjes.biomedcentral.com]
  • Abdominal X-rays may reveal dilated, edematous intestines, although such X-rays are mainly useful to look for pneumoperitoneum, an indicator of gastrointestinal perforation.[en.wikipedia.org]
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA. 2007;208:1763-1771. 7. Rybak MJ, Lomaestro BM, Rotschafer JC, et al.[uspharmacist.com]
  • Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA . 2007;208:1763-1771. 7. Rybak MJ, Lomaestro BM, Rotschafer JC, et al.[uspharmacist.com]
  • Again, in most cases, mixed bacteria are isolated; the most common agents include cutaneous species such as Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase -negative staphylococci, but many others are possible, including fungi such as Candida. [9] Spontaneous bacterial[en.wikipedia.org]
Pleural Exudate
  • Further depletion of complement factors in exudates of long-standing peritonitis or abscesses may create a vicious circle of deficient opsonisation and clearance of bacteria, as earlier reported for chronic pleural exudates.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Because adequate treatment requires prolonged antibiotics the diagnosis should be sure. Unfortunately if antibiotics are given pre-operatively culture is usually unsuccessful and thus careful examination of all removed material is essential.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The treatment failed to slow the progress of the disease, and massive ascites appeared with thickening of the gallbladder wall. Laparotomic investigation was conducted later. Pathologically, thrombosis of the gallbladder vein was diagnosed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Appropriate identification and treatment of acute bacterial peritonitis are keys to better outcomes. In addition to surgical intervention, pharmacologic treatment is also necessary.[uspharmacist.com]
  • The prognosis depends on the severity of the peritonitis and on how quickly treatment is started. Without treatment, acute peritonitis can be fatal.[gopetsamerica.com]

Prognosis

  • However, the prognosis of the condition is not good.[dovemed.com]
  • A discussion of the etiology, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of acute peritonitis, except upon the basis of a clear and comprehensive classification, is fruitless, misleading and usually results in the deduction of erroneous and often[jamanetwork.com]
  • Prognosis and complications:  Mortality is 10% with modern treatment.  Factors responsible for prognosis  Load  Age  Onset of treatment 21.[slideshare.net]
  • The prognosis depends on the severity of the peritonitis and on how quickly treatment is started. Without treatment, acute peritonitis can be fatal.[gopetsamerica.com]
  • Prognosis .—Acute general peritonitis is an extremely grave disease, and the prognosis should be very guarded. Death may occur within forty-eight or seventy-two hours, and most fatal cases within ten days.[henriettes-herb.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract To report etiological and prognostic characteristics of acute peritonitis in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A discussion of the etiology, differential diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of acute peritonitis, except upon the basis of a clear and comprehensive classification, is fruitless, misleading and usually results in the deduction of erroneous and often[jamanetwork.com]
  • Etiology and pathogenesis THE ACUTE PERITONITIS (PERITONITIS ACUTA) Etiology.[lecheniebolezni.com]
  • Untreated peritonitis may result in sepsis and end-organ damage; therefore, prompt treatment of bacterial peritonitis should be guided by specific etiology and comorbidities.[uspharmacist.com]

Epidemiology

  • ., perforation, abscess); typically polymicrobial Tertiary bacterial peritonitis: persistent infection despite therapy Epidemiology Incidence In patients with ascites, the annual incidence of SBP is 10–25% ( 1 ).[unboundmedicine.com]
  • […] considered in patients with cirrhosis who are admitted for upper GI hemorrhage. 12 In the past, norfloxacin 400 mg daily had been the drug of choice in the setting of upper GI hemorrhage; however, alternative antimicrobials have since been considered due to epidemiological[uspharmacist.com]
  • "Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 22 (34): 7742–7. doi : 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7742. PMC 5016373. PMID 27678356. Gati GA, Deshpande A (2012).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology The incidence depends on the cause. In a hospital setting the prevalence of SBP is around 10%. [ 3 ] Three studies of patients with perforated appendicitis found an incidence of postoperative abscess formation of 20%.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Etiology and Pathophysiology Mechanism SBP: Bacterial translocation via lymphatic spread through mesenteric lymph nodes Cirrhotic patients have: Alterations to gut microbiota with higher prevalence of pathogenic organisms Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 2. Ordonez CA, Carlos J. Management of peritonitis in the critically ill patient. Surg Clin North Am. 2006;86:1323-1349. 3.[uspharmacist.com]
  • Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. 2. Ordonez CA, Carlos J. Management of peritonitis in the critically ill patient. Surg Clin North Am . 2006;86:1323-1349. 3.[uspharmacist.com]
  • [11] Although fungi are much larger than bacteria, the increased intestinal permeability resulting from advanced cirrhosis makes their translocation easier. [11] SFP is mostly caused by species of Candida and most commonly by Candida albicans. [14] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • These patients should be managed by complete excision of the urachal remnant to prevent any malignant change occurring, as malignant changes have been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It also prevented the transmigration of human neutrophils through the monolayers of the stimulated HUVECs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1600 Clifton Rd.[dovemed.com]
  • Recognition prevents the appointment of a drug (morphine), which is contraindicated in all cases of suspected peritonitis.[lecheniebolezni.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!