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Acute Prostatitis

Acute prostatitis, defined as an infection of the prostate, is one of the types of urinary tract infections in males. Dysuria, increased urinary frequency, and pain in the pelvic region are main symptoms, whereas fever and systemic manifestations can be reported in more severe forms. Clinical findings, together with a complete laboratory workup, particularly urinalysis and urine cultures, are necessary to make the diagnosis.


Presentation

Acute prostatitis is a term describing an infection of the prostate, arising due to reflux of urine contaminated by various bacterial pathogens [1] [2] [3] [4]. Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, klebsiella spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus mirabilis), as well as E. faecalis and staphylococcus aureus, are the main causative agents [3] [4] [5]. The presence of indwelling catheters is perhaps the greatest risk factor for a urinary tract infection (UTI) of any kind, including prostatitis, while invasive procedures (cystoscopy, transrectal prostate biopsy) can significantly increase the risk of prostatitis [1] [3] [4]. In addition, immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus are also depicted as potential risk factors [3] [4]. The clinical presentation includes an abrupt onset of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, increased urgency to urinate, increased frequency, incomplete voiding and a weak urine stream), painful ejaculation (even hematospermia), and perineal, rectal, or pelvic pain [1] [4] [5] [6]. In addition, prostatitis often causes systemic symptoms - fever, chills, and malaise [1] [4] [5]. In cases when the prostate becomes enlarged, urinary tract obstruction might occur [5] [6]. Many reports have emphasized the serious nature of prostatitis, as it may cause acute urinary retention, potential progression to a chronic infection, but also systemic dissemination and even sepsis, which could be life-threatening in the absence of appropriate therapy [1] [3] [4] [6].

Fever
  • Patients with ESBL had higher peak fever, white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and longer duration of fever and hospitalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dysuria, increased urinary frequency, and pain in the pelvic region are main symptoms, whereas fever and systemic manifestations can be reported in more severe forms.[symptoma.com]
  • The patient had pyuria and mild fever during admission. Laboratory findings showed elevation of the serum prostate specific antigen (95.69 ng/ml). Blood culture yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old man who was admitted to our transplant unit 3.5 months post transplantation with fever, dysuria, suprapubic pain, symptoms and signs of acute prostatitis, and elevated markers of inflammation and prostate-specific[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fever duration, length of hospitalization, use of an antibiotic combination, duration of antibiotic use, and urine bacterial titers increased when BC were positive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • Clinical findings Pain at the base of the penis, perineal and perianal, urgency, burning with urination, fever, malaise, penile discharge; other findings include chills, painful defecation and ejaculation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In addition, prostatitis often causes systemic symptoms - fever, chills, and malaise. In cases when the prostate becomes enlarged, urinary tract obstruction might occur.[symptoma.com]
  • Some symptoms are unique to each condition: the acute version may involve high fever and chills, while this does not usually happen in the chronic case.[sharecare.com]
  • Men with acute prostatitis often have chills, fever, fatigue, pain in the lower back and genital area, urinary frequency and urgency often at night, burning or painful urination, body aches, and a demonstrable infection of the urinary tract, as evidenced[prostatitisradicalcure.com]
  • . • Chills or fever. • Nausea or vomiting. • Urinary problems. Urinary symptoms can take many forms, such as needing to urinate more frequently, more urgently, or more often during the night.[issm.info]
Malaise
  • In addition, prostatitis often causes systemic symptoms - fever, chills, and malaise. In cases when the prostate becomes enlarged, urinary tract obstruction might occur.[symptoma.com]
  • Clinical findings Pain at the base of the penis, perineal and perianal, urgency, burning with urination, fever, malaise, penile discharge; other findings include chills, painful defecation and ejaculation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Sepsis from prostatitis is very rare, but may occur in immunocompromised patients; high fever and malaise generally prompt blood cultures , which are often positive in sepsis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis symptoms may include: Chills Fever Nausea Vomiting Malaise (generally feeling run-down) Strong urge to urinate immediately Painful urination Difficulty urinating, including trouble starting urination and maintaining urinary[prostatitis.net]
  • High fever, chills, aches and malaise (you feel yourself down and really sick) Urinary symptoms in the form of pain when you pass urine, passing urine frequently, an urgent desire to pass urine, foul-smelling urine, difficulty emptying your bladder, weak[gmcdhcc.com]
Perineal Pain
  • pain, burning with urination, difficulty urinating, painful defecation and ejaculation Associations Epididymitis, orchitis, men age 20 to 35 yrs old, multiple sexual partners, high-risk sexual behaviors[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In one report, of 600 men diagnosed with prostatitis, 5% had bacterial prostatitis, 64% had nonbacterial prostatitis, and 31% had pelvic-perineal pain syndrome or prostatodynia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Perineal pain and anal sphincter spasm may complicate the digital rectal examination. The development of bilateral lower back back pain usually signals involvement by the Seminal Vesicles.[fertilitysolution.com]
  • Genitourinary Radiology Male Pelvis Prostate & Seminal Vesicles Prostatitis Prostatitis Prostatitis, an inflammation of the prostate gland, manifests as pelvic or perineal pain, or irritation with micturition or ejaculation.[med-ed.virginia.edu]
  • A healthy 37-year-old man visited the emergency room due to recently developed fever, lower abdominal pain, dysuria, frequency, and perineal pain.[synapse.koreamed.org]
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
  • urinary tract infection and/or chronic infection of the prostate) Category III – Chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (ie, discomfort or pain in the pelvic region for at least 3 mo with variable voiding and sexual symptoms and[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • urinary tract infections with no history of catheterizing their bladders.[uofmhealth.org]
  • Urinary tract infections are generally uncommon in men, and recurrent urinary tract infections in a man should prompt an evaluation for chronic prostatitis or other causes.[verywell.com]
  • The presentation of chronic bacterial prostatitis and CPPS is more subtle, including symptoms of chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections and genitourinary pain .[amboss.com]
  • They usually do not have recurrent urinary tract infections.[atsu.edu]
Abdominal Pain
  • pain Back pain, especially pain in lower back Extreme pain Rectal or perineum pain (area between the anus and scrotum) Blood in the semen Painful ejaculation Cloudy urine Your acute bacterial prostatitis treatment can be successful if you start treatment[prostatitis.net]
  • The signs and symptoms of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis can occur very quickly and they include: Fever with chills Nausea and vomiting Feeling tired Low back pain or lower abdominal pain Pain around the genital area Increased frequency of urination, especially[dovemed.com]
  • A healthy 37-year-old man visited the emergency room due to recently developed fever, lower abdominal pain, dysuria, frequency, and perineal pain.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • pain; acute change in bowel habits; history of diverticulitis; tenderness to palpation localized to the left lower abdominal quadrant Epididymitis Irritative voiding symptoms; tenderness to palpation on affected epididymis Orchitis Swelling, pain, and[aafp.org]
  • Other symptoms include frequent urination, feeling of a need to urinate urgently, low back pain, burning in the penis with or without urination, pain in the rectum and scrotal area, lower abdominal pain, pain with ejaculation and fever or chills.[washington.edu]
Suprapubic Pain
  • The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old man who was admitted to our transplant unit 3.5 months post transplantation with fever, dysuria, suprapubic pain, symptoms and signs of acute prostatitis, and elevated markers of inflammation and prostate-specific[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presents with concern for dysuria, increased urinary frequency, and suprapubic pain over the past week. Upon digital rectal examination, the patient’s prostate is tender and enlarged.[consultant360.com]
  • Symptoms (sudden onset) Systemic symptoms Fever and chills Malaise Joint Pain ( Arthralgia ) Muscle pain (myalgia) Nausea or Vomiting Referred pain Low Back Pain Perineal pain or Rectal Pain Suprapubic Pain Irritative urinary symptoms Dysuria Urinary[fpnotebook.com]
  • Lower abdominal tenderness or suprapubic pain may be present if there is concomitant bladder infection or obstruction. Costovertebral tenderness should be sought.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Rectal Pain
  • Symptoms (sudden onset) Systemic symptoms Fever and chills Malaise Joint Pain ( Arthralgia ) Muscle pain (myalgia) Nausea or Vomiting Referred pain Low Back Pain Perineal pain or Rectal Pain Suprapubic Pain Irritative urinary symptoms Dysuria Urinary[fpnotebook.com]
  • The following are signs and symptoms that may be present with prostatitis: Painful, difficult and/or frequent urinating Blood in the urine Groin pain , rectal pain , abdominal pain and/or low back pain Fever and chills Malaise and body aches Urethral[medicinenet.com]
Back Pain
  • Whole body bone scan and abdominal computed tomography (CT) of a 77-year-old man with intractable back pain revealed a destructive bone lesion in the lumbar spine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He has back pain and difficulty passing urine. His GP has told him he has an infection of the prostate. The patient’s medication records show that he is also taking prednisolone, 10mg daily for temporal arteritis, and Didronel PMO, one tablet daily.[pharmaceutical-journal.com]
  • Bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonococci, and many other are known to be causative agents of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Associated signs and symptoms of the infection could include lower back pain, fever with chills[dovemed.com]
  • pain, especially pain in lower back Extreme pain Rectal or perineum pain (area between the anus and scrotum) Blood in the semen Painful ejaculation Cloudy urine Your acute bacterial prostatitis treatment can be successful if you start treatment soon[prostatitis.net]
  • Signs and symptoms include fever, lower back pain, urinary frequency, and painful urination. The urinalysis reveals the presence of white cells.[fpnotebook.com]
Low Back Pain
  • The signs and symptoms of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis can occur very quickly and they include: Fever with chills Nausea and vomiting Feeling tired Low back pain or lower abdominal pain Pain around the genital area Increased frequency of urination, especially[dovemed.com]
  • Symptoms (sudden onset) Systemic symptoms Fever and chills Malaise Joint Pain ( Arthralgia ) Muscle pain (myalgia) Nausea or Vomiting Referred pain Low Back Pain Perineal pain or Rectal Pain Suprapubic Pain Irritative urinary symptoms Dysuria Urinary[fpnotebook.com]
  • Prostatitis symptoms and signs like low back pain, fever, and chills do not occur with BPH. BPH symptoms and signs that do not occur in prostatitis include a weak stream of urine and a sense of not fully emptying the bladder.[medicinenet.com]
  • Other symptoms include frequent urination, feeling of a need to urinate urgently, low back pain, burning in the penis with or without urination, pain in the rectum and scrotal area, lower abdominal pain, pain with ejaculation and fever or chills.[washington.edu]
  • ., painful ejaculation, pain in the penis, testicles, or scrotum, low back pain, rectal or perineal pain, or even pain along the inner aspects of the thighs) with no demonstrable evidence of infection.[atsu.edu]
Cognitive Disorder
  • In G, patients presented with cognitive disorders and commonly had post-void urine volume measurements.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In G, patients presented with cognitive disorders and commonly had post-void urine volume measurements. In IM, patients presented with a wide range of symptoms, and had very diverse investigations and antibiotic regimen.[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]
Pelvic Pain
  • The most common form is category III, or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.[books.google.de]
  • pain syndrome (ie, white blood cells in semen and/or expressed prostatic secretions and/or third midstream bladder specimen) Category IIIB – Noninflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome (ie, no white blood cells in semen and/or expressed prostatic secretions[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis[aafp.org]
Dysuria
  • Dysuria, increased urinary frequency, and pain in the pelvic region are main symptoms, whereas fever and systemic manifestations can be reported in more severe forms.[symptoma.com]
  • The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old man who was admitted to our transplant unit 3.5 months post transplantation with fever, dysuria, suprapubic pain, symptoms and signs of acute prostatitis, and elevated markers of inflammation and prostate-specific[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presents with concern for dysuria, increased urinary frequency, and suprapubic pain over the past week. Upon digital rectal examination, the patient’s prostate is tender and enlarged.[consultant360.com]
  • […] following: Chills Fever Frequent urination Incomplete emptying of bladder Joint pain (arthralgia) Lower back pain Muscle pain (myalgia) Pain in penis, testicles, and area between the scrotum and the rectum (perineum) Painful ejaculation Painful urination (dysuria[healthcommunities.com]
  • A healthy 37-year-old man visited the emergency room due to recently developed fever, lower abdominal pain, dysuria, frequency, and perineal pain.[synapse.koreamed.org]
Urinary Retention
  • Abdominal abscess resulting from a perforated diverticulitis has never been reported as a cause of acute urinary retention. Our patient is the first case to be reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Men with acute prostatitis complicated by urinary retention are best managed with a suprapubic catheter or intermittent catheterization .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Many reports have emphasized the serious nature of prostatitis, as it may cause acute urinary retention, potential progression to a chronic infection, but also systemic dissemination and even sepsis, which could be life-threatening in the absence of appropriate[symptoma.com]
  • Retention - NIH (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) [ Read More ][icdlist.com]
  • Some people can develop problems so that they are unable to pass urine and the urine builds up in the bladder (this is called urinary retention). See the separate leaflet called Urinary Retention . High temperature (fever) . General aches and pains.[patient.info]
Painful Ejaculation
  • The clinical presentation includes an abrupt onset of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, increased urgency to urinate, increased frequency, incomplete voiding and a weak urine stream), painful ejaculation (even hematospermia), and perineal, rectal[symptoma.com]
  • ejaculation Cloudy urine Your acute bacterial prostatitis treatment can be successful if you start treatment soon after symptoms appear and you complete the treatment course you are prescribed.[prostatitis.net]
  • ejaculation blood in your semen discomfort during bowel movements pain above your pubic bone pain in your genitals, testicles, or rectum Any bacteria that causes UTIs can cause prostatitis.[healthline.com]
  • They include the following: Chills Fever Frequent urination Incomplete emptying of bladder Joint pain (arthralgia) Lower back pain Muscle pain (myalgia) Pain in penis, testicles, and area between the scrotum and the rectum (perineum) Painful ejaculation[healthcommunities.com]
  • ejaculation Flu-like signs and symptoms (with bacterial prostatitis) When to see a doctor If you have pelvic pain, difficult or painful urination, or painful ejaculation, see your doctor.[mayoclinic.org]
Urinary Urgency
  • urgency Obstructive urinary symptoms Decreased urine caliber and force Urinary hesitancy Postvoid dribbling Incomplete Bladder emptying sensation Urine retention Other Painful ejaculation Hematospermia VII.[fpnotebook.com]
  • urgency straining with urination or interrupted stream (obstruction) lower back pain Physical exam fever chills digital rectal exam enlarged prostate very tender on exam may indicate acute prostatitis less tender on exam may indicate chronic prostatitis[medbullets.com]
  • UTI Prostatic abscess Acute urine retention Pyelonephritis Epididymitis Sepsis Renal damage Sudden fever, chills Abdominal, groin, perineal, or lower back pain Perineal fullness Arthralgia, myalgia Urinary urgency and frequency Dysuria, nocturia Transient[quizlet.com]
  • Painful urination: specifically a burning sensation Urinary urgency: experiencing an urge to urinate immediately Urinary hesitancy: dribbling or difficulty starting the urine stream Urinary frequency: needing to urinate more often than usual Nocturia:[verywell.com]
  • The clinical presentation of ABP may be highly variable with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. 6 Classic symptoms include: fever chills perineal or lower abdominal pain dysuria urinary frequency urinary urgency painful ejaculation hematospermia. 8[racgp.org.au]

Workup

A thorough clinical workup by the physician can provide sufficient clues to make an initial diagnosis. Firstly, a detailed patient history, including the onset of symptoms, their characteristics, as well as the assessment of risk factors (catheterization, immunosuppression), should be obtained [1] [2]. More specific findings of prostatitis, however, are identified during the physical examination. A properly conducted digital rectal exam will reveal an enlarged prostate that is tender on palpation, one of the key features of prostatitis [2] [5] [6]. Physicians must be careful when performing a prostate exam, as prostate massage is contraindicated in the case of acute prostatitis due to an increased risk of subsequent bacteremia and sepsis [1] [2]. As soon as clinical criteria suggest an infection of the urinary tract, laboratory studies (a complete blood count with basic biochemical parameters and serum inflammatory markers), together with urinalysis, urine cultures (of midstream urine), and blood cultures if systemic signs are present, are the next step [1] [2] [3] [5]. If the diagnosis remains inconclusive, or if patients do not respond to antibiotic therapy, imaging studies such as transrectal prostatic ultrasonography (TRUS), pelvic ultrasonography or computed tomography (CT) can be implemented [2]. The use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is not recommended, as it is often elevated due to the inflammatory changes in the prostate [2], which could mislead the physicians toward other diagnoses.

Pyuria
  • The patient had pyuria and mild fever during admission. Laboratory findings showed elevation of the serum prostate specific antigen (95.69 ng/ml). Blood culture yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute prostatitis was defined as a fever greater than 38 C, pyuria, and tenderness on digital rectal examination. Urine and blood cultures were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A urinalysis is performed, the results of which reveal pyuria and the presence of nitrite-positive bacteria. Based on these findings, you make a diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis, and you would like to initiate antibiotic therapy.[consultant360.com]
  • […] obstruction) lower back pain Physical exam fever chills digital rectal exam enlarged prostate very tender on exam may indicate acute prostatitis less tender on exam may indicate chronic prostatitis Studies Urine studies for bacterial infection urinalysis pyuria[medbullets.com]
  • Benign prostatic hypertrophy and overactive bladder may also present with lower urinary tract symptoms, but are generally without signs of infection like fever or pyuria. D. Physical Examination Findings.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Treatment

  • There is currently a lack of consensus for the diagnosis, investigations and treatments of acute bacterial prostatitis (AP).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patients reported improvement significantly more often after metacycline than after placebo treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pre- and post-treatment scintigraphies were performed. Before treatment, all patients with prostatitis showed uptake of ILLs in the prostate area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment [ edit ] Antibiotics are the first line of treatment in acute prostatitis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The prompt initiation of effective treatment is essential to decrease morbidity and mortality. Empirical treatment would be a second or third generation cephalosporins, or carbapenems according to clinical severity of patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) A prompt diagnosis and treatment of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis can lead to an excellent prognosis; in such cases, complications can also be averted If left untreated, the infection can lead to the following: Abscess formation ([dovemed.com]
  • Lack of clinical response to antibiotics should raise the suspicion of an abscess and prompt an imaging study such as a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). [6] Prognosis [ edit ] Full recovery without sequelae is usual.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prognosis : generally good - may recur, become chronic Prostate disease or form abscesses Prostate: abscessation . NB : Brucella canis Brucella canis has been isolated (rare) from prostatic infections.[vetstream.com]
  • With appropriate treatment, the prognosis of acute prostatitis with and without abscess would not differ.” The investigators noted that prostatic abscesses often are found in patients who do not improve with initial therapy.[renalandurologynews.com]
  • Pain killers and Paracetamol for the fever are prescribed as supportive treatment Is the prognosis good? Most cases of acute prostatitis respond promptly and well to treatment. Your treating Urologist may recommend a prolonged course of antibiotics.[gmcdhcc.com]

Etiology

  • […] prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome, evidence behind individual therapies and ancillary topics such as erectile dysfunction, infertility, the link between chronic prostatitis and prostate cancer, male interstitial cystitis and the potential etiologic[books.google.de]
  • Pathogenesis Etiology Bacteria, eg Escherischii coli Escherichia coli - most common. Fungal - rare. Predisposing factors General Bacterial urinary tract infection. Urinary catheterization (high urinary bacterial numbers). Immunodeficiency.[vetstream.com]
  • (Etiology) The bacteria, which generally cause urinary infections, also cause Acute Bacterial Prostatitis.[dovemed.com]
  • Etiology Pathogenesis Bacterial prostatitis : Gram-negative bacteria, particularly E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae Enterococci and other gram-positive cocci Mycobacterial or viral infections are rare.[amboss.com]
  • […] pneumoniae chronic prostatitis can be due to recurrent infections lasting 3 months (10% of chronic prostatitis) can be due to chronic pelvic pain (90% of chronic prostatitis) 3 months of pain in the absence of other identifiable causes noninfectious etiology[medbullets.com]

Epidemiology

  • "[Epidemiology and treatment of acute prostatitis after prostatic biopsy]". Prog. Urol. (in French). 17 (5): 960–3. doi : 10.1016/S1166-7087(07)92397-0 . PMID 17969797 . Goldman, Lee (2011). Goldman's Cecil Medicine (24th ed.).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] ie, no white blood cells in semen and/or expressed prostatic secretions) Category IV – Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (ie, evidence of inflammation in biopsy samples, semen and/or expressed prostatic secretions, but no symptoms) Historical and epidemiologic[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology Uncommon type of Prostatitis , accounting for only 10% of cases Peak onset age 20-40 years old, and over age 70 years old III.[fpnotebook.com]
  • ) : primarily affects men 40–60 years of age References: [1] [2] [3] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • Epidemiology and treatment of acute prostatitis after prostatic biopsy . Prog. Urol. 17 , 960–963 (2007). 49. Kanjanawongdeengam, P. , Viseshsindh, W. , Santanirand, P. , Prathombutr, P. & Nilkulwattana, S.[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Ascending bacterial infection from urinary tract - most common. Ascending infection from gonadal infection - less common. Blood borne.[vetstream.com]
  • Pathophysiology: Mechanisms Ascending infection from infected Urethra or intraprostatic reflux (most cases) Instrumentation (transrectal Prostate biopsy, Urinary Catheterization , cystoscopy) Direct or lymphatic spread from Rectum Hematogenous spread[fpnotebook.com]
  • The NIH revised classification of prostatitis deals with pathophysiology and biological diagnosis, but the clinical features of AP are briefly described as "signs of acute UTI" [ 1 ].[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]

Prevention

  • Acute Bacterial Prostatitis infection may be prevented by: Avoiding injury to the genital area Intake of plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration Engaging in safe sex practices Undertaking a prompt treatment of any urinary infections What is the Prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • However, prompt treatment with selected antibiotics along with dietary and lifestyle changes usually eliminates the infection and can help prevent it from returning.[prostatitis.net]
  • Diagnosis This article is available in full to registered subscribers Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login Treatment This article is available in full to registered subscribers Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login Prevention This[vetstream.com]
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: how to prevent and manage chronic infection? J Infect Chemother . 2012;18(4):444–450. 6. Millán-Rodríguez F, Palou J, Bujons-Tur A, et al.[aafp.org]
  • Prevention You may be able to prevent prostatitis. Practice good hygiene, and keep your penis clean. Drink enough fluids to cause regular urination. Seek early treatment of a possible urinary tract infection .[northshore.org]

References

Article

  1. Coker TJ, Dierfeldt DM. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93(2):114-20.
  2. Nickel JC. Prostatitis. Can Urol Assoc J. 2011;5(5):306-315.
  3. Grabe M, Bartoletti R, Bjerklund-Johansen TE, et al. Guidelines on Urological Infections. European Association of Urology. 2015.
  4. Dickson G. Prostatitis--diagnosis and treatment. Aust Fam Physician. 2013;42(4):216-219.
  5. Videčnik Zorman J, Matičič M, Jeverica S, Smrkolj T. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2015;24(2):25-29.
  6. Krieger JN, Nyberg L Jr, Nickel JC. NIH consensus definition and classification of prostatitis. JAMA 1999; 282:236.

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 06:59