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Acute Respiratory Infection


Presentation

  • RESULTS: the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis was present in 42.6% of the children in the first assessment. Hypoxemia was the characteristic that presented the best measures of accuracy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Adventitious breath sounds presented the best measure of accuracy. Ineffective cough presented a high value of sensitivity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An ancestor of the present HRV-ABCs could be dated back to about 20,000 years ago.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODOLOGY: Otherwise healthy 152 patients, presenting to outpatient clinics with ILI/ARI, were included.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We therefore aimed to determine cough-specific QoL and identify its influencing factors among children with ARIwC, at the time of presentation to a pediatric emergency department (ED), and over the following 4 weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Pooled estimates indicated that in middle-income countries children at-risk of intellectual disability were significantly more likely than their peers to have reported symptoms of ARI, diarrhoea and fever during the previous 2 weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: To compare influenza-related epidemiologic data, from October 2010 through March 2013, we enrolled hospitalized severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; fever with respiratory symptoms) and acute febrile illness (AFI; fever without respiratory[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Definitions: Prevention Interventions 1, 6 and 9 Recognise danger signs of pneumonia (rapid or difficult breathing, chest in-drawing, nasal flare and/or fever) Home-based management of cough, cold and fever Referral to health facility for high fever with[wvi.org]
  • METHODS: We conducted active surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; fever and at least one sign or symptom of acute respiratory illness) among hospitalized pediatric patients in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, from April 2010 to April 2012[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: We completed validation within an active SARI surveillance project, with SARI defined using the World Health Organization case definition of an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever, or measured fever of 38 C; and cough; and with[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Malaise
  • It is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, myalgia, headache and severe malaise, non-productive cough, sore throat, and rhinitis.[schoolsandhealth.org]
  • They are not effective in treating nasal congestion, sinus pressure, sore throat, headache, or malaise from infections.[studenthealth.ucsf.edu]
  • These symptoms include a runny nose or stuffy nose, sore throat, fever, headache, cough, malaise, or vague feeling of illness, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and ear pain.[mpkb.org]
  • Symptoms commonly include fever, shivering, chills, malaise, dry cough, loss of appetite, body aches, and nausea, typically in connection with a sudden onset of illness.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Influenza : initially presents with systemic symptoms, including fever, rigors, headaches, myalgia, malaise and anorexia.[patient.info]
Dry Cough
  • Symptoms commonly include fever, shivering, chills, malaise, dry cough, loss of appetite, body aches, and nausea, typically in connection with a sudden onset of illness.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The most common symptoms of uncomplicated influenza are an abrupt onset of fever, shivering, headache, muscle ache and a dry cough. Cough is often severe and protracted, but other manifestations are usually self-limited with recovery in 2-7 days.[web.archive.org]
  • Respiratory infections in the lower part of the upper respiratory tract, such as, laryngotracheitis, are more commonly featured with dry cough and hoarseness or loss of voice.[medicinenet.com]
  • cough, can be severe) Headache Uncommon Rare Common Fever Never Rare in adults, possible in children [4] Very common 100–102 F (or higher in young children), lasting 3–4 days; may have chills Malaise Sometimes Sometimes Very common Fatigue, weakness[en.wikipedia.org]
Difficulty Vocalizing
  • Changes in respiratory rate, wide-eyed, diminished breath sounds, and difficulty vocalizing presented high positive predictive values.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Orthopnea
  • The results showed that the defining characteristics that better differentiate the studied diagnoses are agitation, irritability and diaphoresis for IGE; dyspnea, use of accessory muscles to breathe, orthopnea, and abnormal breathing pattern for IBP and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Generalized Seizure
  • However, generalized seizures appeared, and she developed a coma on the day of admission. Her plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level was high in the context of a low serum osmolality on the second hospital day.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Legionella Pneumophila
  • pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • pneumophila and Bordetella pertussis by PCR and for ABHS culture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dual detection of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella species by real-time PCR targeting the 23S–5S rRNA gene spacer region. Clin Microbiol Infect . 2010 ; 16 : 255 .[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Dual detection of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella species by real-time PCR targeting the 23S–5S rRNA gene spacer region. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 ; 16 : 255.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • pneumophila Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci Parasitic infections : Respiratory cryptosporidiosis Viral infections : Adenovirus Influenza A virus Influenza B virus Human parainfluenza viruses Human respiratory syncytial[en.wikipedia.org]
Coxiella Burnetii

Treatment

  • We found that the mean annual ARI episode rate among GERD patients reduced by 11.4%, from 4.39 before PPI treatment, to 3.89 following treatment (mean change -0.5 visit, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.64, -0.36)).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms, diarrhoea and fever in the previous two weeks among 3-4 year old children who are/are not at-risk of intellectual disability in 24 low- and middle-income countries and (2) to investigate possible inequities in access to treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the expenditure incurred towards treatment of an episode of respiratory infection among under-fives in outpatient and inpatient departments of primary and secondary level health facilities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our results highlight the importance of surveillance in identifying factors for influenza hospitalization, monitoring adherence to influenza prevention and treatment strategies, and evaluating the disease burden among hospitalized pediatric SARI patients[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OTHER OPTIONS  CEFUROXIME OR CEFOTAXIME  CHOLRAMPHENICOL  Treatment Duration :-7-10 DAYS Rifampicin prophylaxis to close contacts 17.[slideshare.net]

Prognosis

  • The identification of indicators associated with a poor clinical prognosis allows nurses to intervene early and to maximise the possibility of a good outcome. 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lung function tests have shown to be useful as diagnostic tools and for prognosis purposes. Pulse oximetry, also known as pulse ox, may be used to check how much oxygen gets into the lungs.[vikaspedia.in]
  • This improved prognosis seems to be mainly attributed to the preventive effects of VDRA against death due to cardiovascular disease, and a few reports have indicated its benefits in preventing death from infections ( 17 , 19 , 21 ).[cjasn.asnjournals.org]
  • Cutaneous sarcoidosis: prognosis and treatment. Clin Dermatol 1986; 4: 75–87 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 122. Veien NK. Cutaneous sarcoidosis treated with levamisole. Dermatologica 1977; 154: 185–9 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 123.[doi.org]
  • Upper Respiratory Infection Prognosis (Outlook) Upper respiratory infections are a common occurrence and most people will get two to four colds per year.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • The viral etiology, as well as the presence of multiple viral infections, was determined. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic and clinical information.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study described the frequency and types of different infectious etiologies among hospitalized patients with SARI in Tianjin, China, during 2015 and 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the diverse etiologies of febrile respiratory illness in children and adults in Southern Sri Lanka. 1d. Validate a clinical predictor for common etiologies of febrile illness.[globalhealth.duke.edu]
  • Main content Infectious Diseases Control Comprehensive Etiological and Epidemiological Study on Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: Providing Evidence for the Prevention and Control of Childhood Pneumonia in the Philippines Saving Children in Developing[jst.go.jp]

Epidemiology

  • These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Demographic and epidemiologic data were obtained from enrolled patients after which nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected, and processed by molecular methods for the presence of influenza viruses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • D'Alessandro" - Hygiene Section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital "Paolo Giaccone", Palermo, Italy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The epidemiology, seasonality and risk factors for influenza virus infection remains poorly defined in countries such as Egypt.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVES: To reveal the epidemiological features of HPIV infection in SARIs in Beijing area from September 2014 to August 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Cause [ edit ] In terms of pathophysiology, rhinovirus infection resembles the immune response. The viruses do not cause damage to the cells of the upper respiratory tract, but rather cause changes in the tight junctions of epithelial cells.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Pengzb@chinacdc.cn. 2 Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. fenglz@chinacdc.cn. 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, China. 2 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To conduct a clinical trial of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for ARI prevention in residents of sheltered-accommodation housing blocks ('schemes') and their carers in London, UK.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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