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Acute Rheumatic Endocarditis

Acute Rheumatic Fever


Presentation

  • Colonial War Memorial Hospital, December 2005 to November 2007 Clinical presentation No.[mja.com.au]
  • When minor manifestations alone are present, the exclusion of other more likely causes of the clinical presentation is recommended before a diagnosis of an ARF recurrence is made (Class I, Level of Evidence C).[acc.org]
  • Gebremariam S, Moges T Long-Term Nonmalignant Disease Mortality in Subjects Exposed to Transmissible Agents Present in Animals Used for Food.[medicbind.com]
  • Case 1 A twelve year-old girl presented with a two week history of myalgia and general malaise.[omicsonline.org]
  • Benefit from matchless Netter illustrations that offer precision, clarity, detail and realism as they provide a visual approach to the clinical presentation and care of the patient.[books.google.com]
Ecthyma
  • NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Ecthyma (Medical Encyclopedia) Erysipelas (Medical Encyclopedia) Group B streptococcal septicemia of the newborn (Medical Encyclopedia) Group B streptococcus - pregnancy (Medical Encyclopedia)[icdlist.com]
Abnormal Involuntary Movement
  • Carditis occurs in about 80% of people with rheumatic fever 3 and commonly affects the mitral and aortic valves, resulting in regurgitation. 4 Other less common clinical features include abnormal involuntary movements (chorea), rash (erythema marginatum[bmj.com]

Workup

  • Thuny et al have developed an algorithm for the workup of negative blood cultures. The first stage is to obtain serologies for Q fever and Bartonella.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]

Treatment

  • This is in contrast to the recommendation for azithromycin treatment of acute group A streptococcal infection.[nps.org.au]
  • Here we report 2 pediatric cases of MR and/or treatment failure in the treatment of GAS pharyngitis with the subsequent development of acute rheumatic fever.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Stay at the forefront of your field with updated treatment methods throughout, as well as an increased focus on patients with skin of color.[books.google.com]
  • Hospitalization for ARF/RHD Treatment of ARF Patients (n 572) and Hospitalization (Within 1 Year of RHD diagnosis) for RHD Treatment of RHD Patients (n 1248), NT, 1997 to 2013 Exposure Variables Hospitalization for ARF/RHD Treatment Hospitalization for[circ.ahajournals.org]

Prognosis

  • Rheumatic Fever Prognosis Rheumatic fever will go resolve spontaneously within 12 weeks even if is not treated. With treatment, it can resolve within two weeks.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Prognosis Rheumatic heart disease occurs in 30-45% of patients with acute RF [ 20 ]. Severe chronic valvular disease is associated with severe carditis and recurrent RF [ 21 ].[patient.info]
  • Elevated in patients with valvular involvement, these antibodies are significantly reduced after surgical removal of inflamed valves and they correlate with poor prognosis [ 6 ].[link.springer.com]
  • Prognosis Rheumatic mitral valve disease is inconsistently reparable, and the long-term outcomes after surgical repair are not as good as for valve repair for mitral valve prolapse due to leaflet and chordal scarring.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Fungal endocarditis has a poor prognosis.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • Etiology Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus ) is the etiological agent that induces an autoimmune reaction that results in damage to the heart. This complication occurs several weeks after a pharyngeal infection with S pyogenes.[atsu.edu]
  • New observations on the etiology of aortic valve disease: a surgical pathologic study of 236 cases from 1990. Hum Pathol. 1993 Dec. 24(12):1330-8. [Medline]. Veinot JP. Pathology of inflammatory native valvular heart disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] ventricular septal defect (VSD), vegetations can be found on the right ventricular side of the VSD, on the tricuspid valve or where the jet impinges on the right ventricular wall Vegetations found in coarctation usually occur distal to the obstruction Etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Embolic stroke with focal neurologic deficits is the most common etiology. Other etiologies include intracerebral hemorrhage and multiple microabscesses.[intranet.tdmu.edu.ua]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiologic implications: It is reasonable to consider individuals at low risk of ARF if they come from a setting or population with known low rates of ARF and RHD (Class IIa, Level of Evidence C).[acc.org]
  • Woven throughout the content is new and updated material that reflects key practice differences in Canada, ranging from the healthcare system, to cultural considerations, epidemiology, pharmacology, Web resources, and more.[books.google.de]
  • Changes in the clinical and epidemiological features of group A streptococcal bacteraemia in Australia\u2019s Northern Territory. Trop Med Int Health 2015;20:40-7. Kim S, Lee NY.[nps.org.au]
  • This review summarizes these findings and provides a clinical perspective on ARF/RHD pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, management and control.[link.springer.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiological and clinical sequelae of these valvular lesions are discussed on their own pages and are not unique to this particular etiopathogenesis.[pathwaymedicine.org]
  • Pathophysiology Causative agent Group A Beta-hemolytic streptococci Untreated strep throat Rheumatic fever All layers of the heart and the mitral valve become inflammed Vegetation forms Valvular Regurgitation and stenosis Heart Failure 12. V.[slideshare.net]
  • Moreover, heart-M protein cross-reactive T cells have been isolated from the myocardium and the valves of RHD patients suggesting their involvement in the pathophysiology of the disease [ 7 , 8 ].[link.springer.com]
  • […] defibrillator, IVDA (right sided endocarditis), indwelling catheter Congenital heart disease: small ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, patent ductus arteriosus Uncommon with large VSD, mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]

Prevention

  • Different Preventions of RHD Type of Prevention Aim (What?) Modality (How?)[circ.ahajournals.org]
  • Secondary prevention is the key focus of most control strategies, due to its proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and the challenges of primordial and primary prevention.[link.springer.com]
  • While the focus in preventing RHD has predominantly been on preventing infection, there has been little attention on controlling the inflammatory responses which is the main driving force.[omicsonline.org]
  • Timor Leste). 34 This adds a further challenge to the prevention of this serious and potentially fatal condition.[nps.org.au]
  • […] by · Published September 2, 2011 · Updated July 3, 2015 We’ve discussed Strep Pharyngitis (12/3/2010) and how in treating it we are primarily focusing on preventing Rheumatic Heart Disease.[pedemmorsels.com]

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