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Acyclovir

Aciclovir


Presentation

  • Laryngopharyngeal herpes simplex virus infection is rare and presents typically in the supraglottis. Findings on presentation can range from small mucosal lesions to fungating obstructive masses mimicking neoplasm.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present this case to increase awareness of the potential for inappropriate dosing of acyclovir and the presentations of patients with toxic effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The mean age of presentation was 51.53 years. The duration of symptoms at presentation ranged from 2 to 8 weeks. HSV1 DNA polymerase chain reaction was positive in 70% cases of those tested.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complicating her presentation was acyclovir-induced acute renal injury causing her creatinine level to rise up to 7.4 mg/dL. Acyclovir was discontinued on the suspicion of acyclovir neurotoxicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The presentation of herpes zoster in immunocompromised children is similar to that of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompetent children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sleep Apnea
  • His medical and surgical histories included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea not requiring biphasic positive airway pressure, obesity, oxygen supplementation, and appendectomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tongue Ulcer
  • Despite acyclovir prophylaxis (200 mg/day), she developed the right palatal ulcer that was positive for HSV-1 specific antigen by fluorescent antibody on day 20 and developed new hypoglossal and tongue ulcers on day 33.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Meningism
  • KEYWORDS: HSV; acyclovir; encephalitis; herpes simplex virus; meningitis; rapid diagnosis; toxicity[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was given intravenous acyclovir and intravenous ceftriaxone given the suspicion of encephalitis/meningitis. Investigations including routine bloods, CT/MRI Head and lumbar puncture were unremarkable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid for meningitis and imaging studies of the head were negative. Serum levels of acyclovir were elevated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He was also given moxifloxacin 400 mg i.v. daily for possible COPD exacerbation and doxycycline 100 mg i.v. twice daily for possible leptospirosis meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physical examination revealed neither meningeal signs nor focal neurological deficits.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Choreoathetoid Movements
  • Ten days later, he was readmitted to our clinic with acute fever, focal convulsions and choreoathetoid movements, and altered consciousness. Acyclovir was started immediately, but he died on the 17th day because of respiratory failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Altered Mental Status
  • Although other diagnoses were considered in the differential diagnosis for this patient with altered mental status, he was treated for presumed acyclovir toxicity and given prompt dialysis, upon which his symptoms resolved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Acyclovir has been used in the treatment of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viral infections for over 30 years. The side effects of oral treatment at standard doses are rare and include headache, diarrhoea, dizziness and malaise.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Few previous trials have supported the use of acyclovir cream in treatment-resistant plantar warts. However, no case reports to date describe the efficacy of oral acyclovir in the treatment of verruca.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] after episodic acute treatment is completed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal foscarnet was efficacious in the treatment of acyclovir-resistant ARN caused by VZV. It may be used as the sole treatment in patients with intolerance to systemic administration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • It might be important as well, to personalize and elongate the treatment in terms of prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To assess the incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity. We conducted a historical prospective cohort study of patients treated with intravenous acyclovir in North Denmark Region from 2009 to 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Amplify disease classification for the purpose of predicting prognosis. V. Assess any changes in viral excretion patterns. VI.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Bahnassy AA, Zekri AR, Asaad N et al (2006) Epstein-Barr viral infection in extranodal lymphoma of the head and neck: correlation with prognosis and response to treatment. Histopathology 48:516–528 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 61.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Central nervous system infection of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common etiologic agent of the non-epidemic fatal form of encephalitis. Relapse of HSV encephalitis is rare in childhood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology was vigorously explored. He had no history of any neurological or psychiatric disorders. Drug history was reviewed, but no other medications besides acyclovir were currently being used.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bell's palsy: the spontaneous course of 2,500 peripheral facial nerve palsies of different etiologies. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 2002 ;549: 4 - 30 7. Neely JG, Neufeld PS.[nejm.org]
  • Laboratory testing can help to establish the etiology of atypical cases ( Chanzy 2002 ; Farhatullah 2004 ; Kowalski 1993 ).[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological association with a maximum arterial hypertension. Illegal either universally effective in the journal of a prostatic hyperplasia. 10 mg and the smooth muscle of erectile dysfunction.[orientas.it]
  • Author information 1 Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Nanjing, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. 3 Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiology and treatment of Bell's palsy in the UK. Eur J Neurol 2002 ;9: 63 - 67 11. Salinas RA, Alvarez G, Ferreira J. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).[nejm.org]
  • Excellent clinical safety profile 6 -- aside from drug hypersensitivity, there are no absolute contraindications to acyclovir Safe during pregnancy -- although there are no large, controlled studies of acyclovir safety in pregnant women, a prospective epidemiological[emedexpert.com]
  • A prospective, epidemiological registry of acyclovir use during pregnancy was established in 1984 and completed in April 1999.[web.archive.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Furthermore, since acyclovir treatment interferes with neither the pre-eruption pathophysiology of primary varicella–zoster virus infection nor the subsequent immune response, treatment of chickenpox is not likely to predispose the host to reinfection[nejm.org]
  • Although the pathophysiology of PHN remains unclear, pathological analysis of ganglia from people with PHN has revealed diffuse and focal infiltration by chronic inflammatory cells ( Smith 1978 ; Watson 1991 ).[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand. 3 3 Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, GA, USA. Abstract HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recurrence of HSV has been completely prevented or significantly reduced during suppressive therapy with oral aciclovir in immunocompetent patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] renal damage Maintain adequate hydration Check for phlebitis, and rotate infusion sites Storage Reconstituted solutions remain stable for 24 hours at room temperature To prevent precipitation, avoid refrigerating reconstituted solutions[web.archive.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[web.archive.org]

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