Adams-Stokes syndrome is a disorder characterized by a sudden and transient loss of consciousness, due to an abrupt episode of change in heart rhythm. The patient may experience a sudden episode of bradycardia or absence of pulse and syncope that may be followed by epileptic seizures. Adams-Stokes syndrome may be caused by a variety of underlying cardiac pathologies and requires a comprehensive cardiovascular examination in order to be diagnosed with accuracy.
An Adams-Stokes episode initially manifests with significant pallor, followed by impairment of consciousness that ranges from a fainting tendency to a complete loss of consciousness. The aforementioned episode is elicited by a sudden change in the heart rhythm, that may involve tachyarrhythmia or bradyarrhythmia.
Epileptic seizures without an aura may or may not accompany the Adams-Stokes related episode; their onset is usually acute and unexpected, as is their resolution. Patients tend to resume their prior activity without realizing that epileptic activity has taken place. After the individual has fully regained consciousness, flushing is observed, that can be attributed to reactive hyperemia. The episodes described above may develop regardless of the posture of the patient and may be experienced up to multiple times each day.
Approximately 10% to 20% of all Adams-Stokes syndrome episodes are induced by third-degree sinoatrial block paroxysms  . A variety of supraventricular arrhythmias can also be held accountable for the syncopic events observed in Adams-Stokes syndrome and can even co-exist in the same patient   . The presence of a well-defined dysrhythmic condition leads to additional symptoms that can aid in the diagnosis of the underlying cause; symptoms most commonly associated with dysrhythmias that can lead to an Adams-Stokes episode include fatigue, palpitations, and discomfort.
Entire Body System
Upon falling in his bathroom, he had struck his [jamanetwork.com]
[…] associated with atherosclerosis, diabetes, and long-lasting confinement to bed carotid sinus hypersensitivity (three types) 1) cardioinhibitory, resulting in symptomatic asystole of longer than 3 s. 2) vasodepressor, resulting in systolic blood pressure fall [gpnotebook.com]
The patient with apparent loss of consciousness may present to the ED with myriad complaints, including "falling out," "passing out," or simply "feeling dizzy." [ahcmedia.com]
These attacks often occur without warning, there is rapid loss of consciousness and pt. may fall. Convulsions may occur, if heart does not begin to beat within about. 10sec and death will result, if arrest is prolonged 14. [slideshare.net]
Pallor, followed by flushing on recovery, can be reported. Some seizure-like activity sometimes occurs if the attack is prolonged. If anyone manages to check the pulse during an episode, it will be slow, usually less than 40 beats per minute. [patient.info]
An Adams-Stokes episode initially manifests with significant pallor, followed by impairment of consciousness that ranges from a fainting tendency to a complete loss of consciousness. [symptoma.com]
When faintness is related to primary cardiac pathology, there is usually a combination of dermal pallor and cyanosis. [ahcmedia.com]
Typically patients develop an initial pallor, followed by facial flush during recovery. An impairment of transmission of the cardiac electrical impulse along the fibers normally responsible impulse propagation. [icd10data.com]
Collapse, usually without warning (Psora) Loss of consciousness usually between about 10 and 30 seconds (Psora) Pallor, followed by flushing on recovery (Psora) Occasionally, some seizure-like activity if the attack is prolonged (Psora/ Syphilis) Pulse [homeopathyworldcommunity.ning.com]
[…] millions of speakers Translator English - Japanese アダムス·ストークス症候群 130 millions of speakers Translator English - Korean 아담스 스톡스 증후군 85 millions of speakers Translator English - Javanese Adams-Stokes syndrome 85 millions of speakers Translator English - Vietnamese [educalingo.com]
Translator English - Vietnamese Hội chứng Adams -Stokes 80 millions of speakers Translator English - Tamil ஆடம்ஸ்-ஸ்டோக்ஸ் சிண்ட்ரோம் 75 millions of speakers Translator English - Marathi अॅडम्स-स्टोक्स सिंड्रोम 75 millions of speakers Translator English - Turkish [educalingo.com]
[…] syndrome hyperkinetic syndrome tetany Fallot's tetralogy TSS MBD premenstrual syndrome Gulf War syndrome Klinefelter syndrome radiation sickness toxic shock restless legs syndrome cervical root syndrome FAS radiation syndrome Reye's syndrome Ramsay Hunt [synonym.com]
- Heart Disease
Underlying heart disease should be managed appropriately. [patient.info]
heart disease Learn about this topic in these articles: diagnosis in cardiology In cardiology …the vernacular of cardiology—for example, Adams-Stokes syndrome, a type of heart block named for Irish physicians Robert Adams and William Stokes; Austin Flint [britannica.com]
Learn more about diabetes from the Heart disease. [cardiachealth.org]
Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter Authors Source MeSH Adams-Stokes Syndrome Digitalis Glycosides Electrolytes Heart Block Heart Diseases Humans Myocardial Infarction Pub Type(s) Journal Article Language ita PubMed ID 5478830 TY - [unboundmedicine.com]
disease - Hypertensive nephropathy - Secondary hypertension ( Renovascular hypertension ) Ischaemic heart disease Angina pectoris ( Prinzmetal's angina ) - Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - Dressler's syndrome Pulmonary circulation Pulmonary embolism [wikidoc.org]
- Slow Pulse
Observations of some cases of permanently slow pulse. Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science. 1846;2(1):73–85. Harbison J, Newton JL, Seifer C, Kenny RA. Stokes Adams attacks and cardiovascular syncope. Lancet. 2002 Jan 12;359(9301):158-60. [litfl.com]
Deep and fast respiration changes to weak and slow pulse and respiration, convulsions and respiratory pauses that may last for 60 seconds. [whonamedit.com]
Adams and Stokes found their patients to have fatty degeneration of the cardiac muscle, and considered this to be the cause of the slow pulse and attacks of syncope. [annals.org]
( Orthostatic hypotension ) - Rheumatic fever See also congenital ( Q20-Q28, 745-747 ) de:Adams-Stokes-Syndrom fi:Adams-Stokesin oireyhtymä Cardiology [wikidoc.org]
Orthostatic hypotension. A fast tachyarrhythmia (may also reduce cardiac output but does not usually have the same brief but dramatic effect). Drop attacks. Transient ischaemic attack. Syncope due to hypoperfusion - eg, due to hypovolaemia. [patient.info]
Other signs and symptoms include hypotension, heart rate ... [educalingo.com]
CHEST - HEART failure - accompanied by – hypotension elat. CHEST - HEART failure - accompanied by - pulse; soft glon. CHEST - HEART failure - accompanied by – shock adren. carb-v. kali-c. lach. [homeopathyworldcommunity.ning.com]
[…] resulting from sudden dilatation of venous capacitance vessels sometimes associated with vagally mediated bradycardia orthostatic hypotension sudden fall in blood pressure occurring on standing - can be secondary to hypovolaemia resulting from drugs, [gpnotebook.com]
- Long Legs
XXY-syndrome (n.) syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present in the male Synonyms: syndrome [synonym.com]
- Restless Legs Syndrome
legs syndrome cervical root syndrome FAS radiation syndrome Reye's syndrome Ramsay Hunt syndrome Tourette's syndrome minimal brain damage cervical disc syndrome intermittent tetanus attention deficit disorder Klinefelter's syndrome toxic shock syndrome [synonym.com]
The aim of this paper is to review the Stokes-Adams attack and its similarity to epileptic seizure with a case report. [agris.fao.org]
[…] patient develops seizures. [explainmedicine.com]
INCREASING interest in the relative importance of paroxysmal ventricular fibrillation, as opposed to ventricular standstill, as the cause of Adams-Stokes seizures has encouraged us to report another case and to review the present concepts concerning various [jamanetwork.com]
Seizures may or may not accompany these attacks. Treatment is permanent pacemaker implantation as no medical therapy exists to reverse the inherent cardiac conduction pathology. EMAIL PRINT SAVE EMAIL SAVE Previous Next [healio.com]
Normal periods of unconsciousness last approximately thirty seconds; if seizures are present, they will consist of twitching after 15 – 20 seconds (seizures occur because of cerebral hypoxia). [ipfs.io]
An occasional temporary stoppage or extreme slowing of the pulse as a result of heart block, causing dizziness, fainting, and sometimes convulsions. [yourdictionary.com]
An occasional temporary stoppage or extreme slowing of the pulse as a result of heart block, causing dizziness, fainting, and sometimes convulsions. Also called Stokes-Adams syndrome. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
The attacks manifested themselves in sudden dizziness or fainting lasting a minute or two and were usually precipitated by swallowing [jamanetwork.com]
Feeling light headed/ faintness/ dizzy Is due to reduction in cardiac out put as a result of sudden changes in heart rate or rhythm Loss of consciousness Manifests when blood flow to brain is reduced due to sudden but pronounced decrease in the [explainmedicine.com]
Symptoms: Symptoms include, Palpitations, dizziness, feeling confused, coldness, and sweating. [medigoo.com]
Recovery is fairly rapid, although the patient may be confused for a while afterwards. [patient.info]
Top « STROKE SYMPTOMS Common stroke symptoms seen in both men and women: Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm or leg — especially on one side of the body Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes [cardiachealth.org]
MIND - CONFUSION of mind - sleep – after ambr. anac. ars. bry. calc. carb-v. Con. dulc. graph. hep. lach. op. spong. squil. Sulph. uran-n. SKIN - DISCOLORATION – pale Acet-ac. am-c. Anan. androc. Apis ars-s-f. Ars. atra-r. bar-c. bar-s. [homeopathyworldcommunity.ning.com]
- Drop Attacks
System(s) affected: cardiovascular, nervous Synonym(s): drop attacks; Morgagni, Morgagni-Adams-Stokes; Spens syndrome Epidemiology Incidence Incidence rate of 5–10% for those age 70 years Prevalence Unknown (Overall prevalence of 3rd-degree atrioventricular [unboundmedicine.com]
Drop attacks. Transient ischaemic attack. Syncope due to hypoperfusion - eg, due to hypovolaemia. Management Reversible causes such as drug toxicity should be addressed. Underlying heart disease should be managed appropriately. [patient.info]
A drop attack with third degree AV block is called a "Stokes Adams" attack, and is often associated with bizarre wide inverted T-waves. [hqmeded-ecg.blogspot.com]
(Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis) Differential diagnosis A fast tachyarrhythmia (may also reduce cardiac output but does not usually have the same brief but dramatic effect) Carotid sinus hypersensitivity Drop attacks Epilepsy (if convulsions occur) Orthostatic [homeopathyworldcommunity.ning.com]
One specific manifestation of vertebrobasilar TIA that both signals its origin and is relatively pathognomonic of vertebrobasilar insufficiency is the so-called "drop" attack or akinetic collapse. [ahcmedia.com]
Ad·ams-Stokes syn·drome ( a'dămz stōks ), a syndrome characterized by slow or absent pulse, vertigo, syncope, convulsions, and sometimes Cheyne-Stokes respiration; usually results from advanced AV block or sick sinus syndrome. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Adams-Stokes syndrome: Description: A syndrome characterized by slow or absent pulse, vertigo, syncope, convulsions, and sometimes Cheyne-Stokes respiration; usually as a result of advanced AV block or sick sinus syndrome.Alternative Names: Morgagni disease [medigoo.com]
Books relating to Adams-Stokes syndrome and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature. 1 Stedman's Medical Eponyms Adams-Stokes syndrome - characterized by slow or absent pulse, vertigo, syncope, convulsions, and sometimes [educalingo.com]
The feeling of impulsion is particularly characteristic of vertigo. All but the mildest forms of vertigo are accompanied by diaphoresis, pallor, nausea, and vomiting. [ahcmedia.com]
Any patient presenting with a syncopic event is required to undergo multiple tests and examinations in order to detect the precise cause of the loss of consciousness. A fainting spell raises suspicion towards Adams-Stokes syndrome, when the patient reports a sudden-onset fainting tendency or loss of consciousness, following otherwise unexplained pallor. After the episode is resolved, the patient typically reports flushing.
For the physician to establish an accurate diagnosis of Adams-Stokes syndrome, many of the following tests should be carried out and evaluated:
- A comprehensive medical history, including underlying cardiovascular or other pathologies, prior similar episodes and their characteristics, as well as medication history. Digoxin is particularly known for its potential to lead to toxicity, a state which may further cause a third-degree atrioventricular block, amongst others, and an Adams-Stokes episode .
- Blood pressure and heart rate measurement.
- Electrocardiography (ECG): Although it may appear normal after the resolution of the episode, a 24-hour ECG monitoring will help to illustrate multiple types of dysrhythmia associated with the syndrome .
- Blood tests: Digoxin can be directly measured in the blood. Furthermore, blood tests can detect enzymes associated with myocardial infarction.
- Cardiac catheterization.
- Electrophysiologic studies.
A potential Adams-Stokes episode, complicated by convulsions should prompt neurological evaluation as well.
- Rasmussen K. Chronic sinoatrial heart block. American Heart journal. 1971; 81:38.
- Jensen G, Sigurd B, Meibom J, Sandoe E. Adams-Stokes syndrome caused by paroxysmal third-degree atrioventricular block. British Heart Journal, 1973;35: 5I6.
- Ferrer MI. The sick sinus syndrome in atrial disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1968; 206: 645-46.
- Slama R, Waynberger M, Motte G, Bouvrain Y. La maladie rhythmique auriculaire. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux, 1969; 62 (3): 297.
- Eraut D, Shaw DB. Sinus bradycardia. British Heart Journal, 1971; 33:742.
- Eichhorn EJ, Gheorghiade M. Digoxin. Prog cardiovasc dis. 2002; 44 (4): 251–66.
- Schlant RC, Adolph RJ, DiMarco JP, et al. Guidelines for electrocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures (Committee on Electrocardiography). Circulation. 1992 Mar; 85(3):1221-8.