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Adenocarcinoma of Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary Tract

Adenocarcinoma of Gallbladder and EBT


Presentation

  •  The reminder present late with recurrent cholangitis or cirrhosis. 30.[slideshare.net]
  • Most patients are asymptomatic until the disease is advanced but presenting symptoms include abdominal pain (usually in the upper right quadrant), nausea, vomiting, jaundice, anorexia and weight loss.[orpha.net]
  • This medical emergency presents with malaise and fever, followed by sweating and shivering. RUQ pain & jaundice may be present. Severe cases: patient is lethargic, prostrate and in shock.[quizlet.com]
  • Cholangiocarcinoma Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will vary depending on the location of the tumor. Initial symptoms are commonly nonspecific.[cco.amegroups.com]
Pathologist
  • This terminology is not well spread and not consistently used by pathologists. The terminology is used in the biliary ducts, not in the gallbladder. The precursor lesions are flat and not recognizable by radiological techniques.[oncolex.org]
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by tissue sample obtained by biopsy by a surgeon, gastroenterologist, or interventional radiologist and a pathologist using a microscope to exam the cells obtained by that biopsy sample.[medicinenet.com]
Fishing
  • For example, consumption of salted fish, a staple in many Chinese homes, has been linked to increased inflammation and incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma [ 19 ], while consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs have been associated with increased incidence[journals.plos.org]
  • It’s more common in Asia and happens when people eat raw or poorly cooked fish that are infected with tiny parasitic worms called liver flukes. They can live in your bile ducts and cause cancer.[webmd.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Symptoms can include Jaundice Itchy skin Fever Abdominal pain Tests to diagnose bile duct cancer may include a physical exam, imaging tests of the liver and bile ducts, blood tests, and a biopsy.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Symptomatic gallstones typically manifest with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Other symptoms may include: • Abdominal pain; Fever, nausea and vomiting; • Bloating; • Anorexia; and • Bloating. ICD-9: 156.00 PROGRESSION Cholangiocarcinoma generally causes progressive liver failure.[secure.ssa.gov]
  • pain Case 10: Back pain Case 11: Dark stools Case 12: Chest pain Case 13: Chest pain Case 14: Chest pain Case 15: Chronic abdominal pain Case 16: Trouble sleeping Case 17: Forgetfulness Case 18: Cough Case 19: Cough Case 2: Abdominal pain Case 20: Decreased[amboss.com]
Nausea
  • Other symptoms may include: • Abdominal pain; Fever, nausea and vomiting; • Bloating; • Anorexia; and • Bloating. ICD-9: 156.00 PROGRESSION Cholangiocarcinoma generally causes progressive liver failure.[secure.ssa.gov]
  • Most patients are asymptomatic until the disease is advanced but presenting symptoms include abdominal pain (usually in the upper right quadrant), nausea, vomiting, jaundice, anorexia and weight loss.[orpha.net]
  • Signs & Symptoms These are signs and symptoms of bile duct cancer: Yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, also called jaundice Dark-colored urine Clay-colored stool Pain in the abdomen Fever Itchy skin Nausea and vomiting Weight loss for an unknown[healthcare.utah.edu]
  • Symptomatic gallstones typically manifest with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

Workup

Treatment

  • Management and treatment The only curative treatment is complete surgical resection. If obstructive jaundice is present then biliary drainage with stenting is necessary.[orpha.net]
  • Treatment is aimed at correcting the underlying cause. The primary objective of medical or surgical treatment is to alleviate the blockage. Some of the treatment options include a cholecystectomy and an ERCP.[healthline.com]
  • What is the treatment for bile duct cancer? Choosing the right treatment for bile duct cancer depends upon disease stage, the patient’s physical condition and tumor characteristics. Our treatment approach is individualized for every patient.[mdanderson.org]

Prognosis

  • The aim of study is to assess the clinicopathological features, therapeutic approach and prognosis of these patients Methods: “The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer” conducted “the Korean Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Study” and[doi.org]
  • In the near future, new innovative treatments might be the best way to improve the prognosis in these cancers. Media title: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER[idibgi.org]
  • Once invasive carcinoma develops, prognosis is related to the stage of the invasive component and other conventional prognostic factors. [1] Some of the reports have revealed a very poor prognosis in patients with lymph node metastasis [27].[ijhpd.com]
  • Prognosis As GBC is often detected only at an advanced disease stage, the prognosis is poor with 5-year survival rates of approximately 20%. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]

Etiology

  • Etiology The exact etiology is unknown. Genetic susceptibility elicited by chronic inflammation of the gallbladder leading to dysplasia and malignant change is one possibility.[orpha.net]
  • Bile duct dilatation can be due to several etiologies.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Although many etiological factors have been characterized, the cause of carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts remains speculative in most cases.[karger.com]
  • The etiology is unknown, although some of these patients have biliary parasites. The disease is characterized by the presence of intrahepatic pigmented stones and recurrent infection.[radiologyassistant.nl]

Epidemiology

  • Hundal R, Shaffer EA (2014) Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome. ClinEpidemiol 6: 99-109. Lazcano-Ponce EC, Miquel JF, Muñoz N, Herrero R, Ferrecio C, et al. (2001) Epidemiology and molecular pathology of gallbladder cancer.[omicsonline.org]
  • Summary Epidemiology Annual incidence rates vary from 1/100,000 to 1/ 4,350 between different ethnic groups and geographical regions.[orpha.net]
  • Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome. Clin Epidemiol. 2014. 6:99-109. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Schottenfeld D and Fraumeni J. Cancer. Epidemiology and Prevention. 3rd. Oxford University Press; 2006. 787-800.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172-87. [ Links ] Fonte de financiamento: nenhuma.[scielo.br]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology and Natural History Most gallstones are composed primarily of cholesterol, with smaller amounts of mucus, calcium bilirubinate, and protein.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Pathophysiology Gallbladder cancer arises in the setting of chronic inflammation. In the vast majority of patients ( 75%), the source of this chronic inflammation is cholesterol gallstones.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] dioxide which was used as a radiologic contrast medium, has been linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma as late as 30–40 years after exposure; Thorotrast was banned in the United States in the 1950s due to its carcinogenicity. [35] [36] [37] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Prevention & Screening Many cancers can be prevented with lifestyle changes and regular screening. Counseling MD Anderson has licensed social workers to help patients and their loved ones cope with cancer.[mdanderson.org]
  • These are risk factors for bile duct cancer: A disease called primary sclerosing cholangitis Chronic ulcerative cholitis Cysts in the bile ducts Infection with a Chinese liver fluke parasite Learn more about ways to prevent cancer and about family history[healthcare.utah.edu]
  • Polyps that are 1 centimeter or larger, appear to be growing, or have a broad base should be removed to prevent cancer.[mskcc.org]
  • Clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified.[omicsonline.org]
  • Porphyrias Portal hypertension Postmortem skin changes Postpartum hemorrhage Postpartum period Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Precancerous skin lesions Pregnancy Pregnancy loss Prenatal and postnatal physiology Prenatal care Preterm labor and birth Preventive[amboss.com]

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