Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum

Rectum Adenocarcinoma


Presentation

  • […] surgery, later presenting multiple metastases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The authors present the case of a 17-year-old girl with tuberous sclerosis (TS) who presented with symptoms of intussusception.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We review the literature and present the case of a woman who presented with an ileouterine fistula following surgery and radiotherapy for recurrent rectal adenocarcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who, 10 months after abdominoperineal resection and total mesorectal excision for a locally advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum, presented with local recurrence and metastases to the breast[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report a 28-year-old female who presented with bilateral breast metastasis 9 months after abdomino-perineal resection and total meso-rectal excision for a locally advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • As the cancer grows, it may spread, producing systemic symptoms that affect your whole body, such as fatigue and weight loss.[cancercenter.com]
  • Unexplained weight loss. Causes No cancer grows overnight. Carcinoma rectum is also a slow process. In its initial stage or the precancerous stage, it is known as polyps.[medanta.org]
  • If there are symptoms, the following may indicate colon cancer: Abdominal pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen Blood in the stool Diarrhea , constipation, or other change in bowel habits Narrow stools Weight loss with no known reason Exams and Tests[owensborohealthse3.adam.com]
  • loss Constant feeling of fatigue or tiredness Diagnosis Your rectum will be checked for lumps or abnormal areas.[uvahealth.com]
Fatigue
  • If the lungs are affected, symptoms may include shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing, pain and/or fatigue.[cancercenter.com]
  • There were significant differences in favor of SC for grade 3 AE: radiation dermatitis (0% vs 5.6%, P 0.003), proctitis (0% vs 3.7% P 0.016), nausea (0% vs 3.1%, P 0.029), fatigue (0% vs 3.7%, P 0.016) and grade 3/4 diarrhea rates (1.3% vs 14.2% P 0.001[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The rectal cancer symptoms that may require attention are fatigue from anaemia and the feeling of tenesmus (wanting to open the bowels when there is no stool there can be particularly distressing, especially when it is painful).[myvmc.com]
Pallor
  • Signs Pallor Abdominal mass PR mass Jaundice Nodular liver Ascites Rectal metastasis travel along portal drainage to liver via superior rectal vein as well as systemic drainage to lung via middle inferior rectal veins. 12.[de.slideshare.net]
Pneumonia
  • Forty-one patients were operated on 1 to 11 (mean 4.6) weeks after the completion of radiotherapy; 1 patient died of aspiration pneumonia after completing irradiation but before the planned resection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constipation
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 36-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of constipation and bleeding per rectum. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerated mass 2 cm above the anal verge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient had suffered diarrhea and constipation, and Crohn's disease was suspected. Although the endoscopy did not reveal the presence of any tumors, biopsy specimens demonstrated adenocarcinoma. A Miles' operation was performed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Common local symptoms include: Constipation Diarrhea Alternating diarrhea and constipation, or other changes in bowel habits Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool Abdominal bloating, cramps or discomfort A feeling that the bowel doesn't empty completely[cancercenter.com]
  • When symptoms do appear, they may include: A change in bowel habits Blood, either bright red, or black and tarry, in the stool Stools that are narrower than usual Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely General abdominal[uvahealth.com]
  • Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Common signs and symptoms of rectal cancer include: A change in bowel habits Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely Blood, either bright red or very dark in the stool Stools that[ucsfhealth.org]
Blood in Stool
  • Some changes in bowels habits that may be considered colon cancer signs include: Change in frequency of bowel movements Constipation Change in consistency of stool (loose or watery stools) Blood in stools (either as bright red spots or dark tar-like stools[cancercenter.com]
  • […] in stools, /-abdominal mass, /-rectal mass, /-signs of bowel obstruction (nausea, vomiting), /-narrow caliber stools Symptoms /-constipation Prevalence common Blood work /- anemia (microcytic), /-CEA elevated Radiology /-"apple core" lesion (classic)[librepathology.org]
  • Many of these relate to bowel habit changes and include: Constipation, diarrhea, or bowel incontinence Blood in stool or bowel movements, or stools are narrower than usual Feeling that bowel movements do not completely empty the bowel Constipation or[pamf.org]
  • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): This take-home test looks for blood in stool. A stool sample is examined for traces of blood not visible to the naked eye. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT): This take-home test detects blood proteins in stool.[mdanderson.org]
Hematochezia
  • Clinical signs consist of tenesmus, hematochezia, dyschezia, rectal bleeding unassociated with defecation, and polyp prolapse. Also vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss can occur. Leiomyoma is the second most common benign tumor.[vin.com]
  • The presence of hematochezia is six-times greater in a LGIB than with a UGIB. [5] Occasionally, a person with a LGIB will not present with any signs of internal bleeding, especially if there is a chronic bleed with ongoing low levels of blood loss.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • She was studied because of abdominal pain located in lower hemiabdomen, as well as hematochezia and diarrhea, these symptoms accompanied by weight loss during the last month.[scielo.isciii.es]
Fecal Incontinence
  • A study on 74 dogs documented a 78% complication rate: permanent fecal incontinence (55%), diarrhea (43%), tenesmus (31%), stricture (22%) and rectal bleeding (11%) were the most common.[vin.com]
Dyschezia
  • Clinical signs consist of tenesmus, hematochezia, dyschezia, rectal bleeding unassociated with defecation, and polyp prolapse. Also vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss can occur. Leiomyoma is the second most common benign tumor.[vin.com]

Workup

  • Following pathology confirmation of colorectal cancer as biopsied endoscopically, a metastatic workup is undertaken.[bccancer.bc.ca]
  • CT scan Part of routine workup of patients Useful in identifying enlarged pelvic lymph-nodes and metastasis outside the pelvis than the extent or stage of primary tumor Limited utility in small primary cancer Sensitivity 50-80% Specificity 30-80% Ability[de.slideshare.net]
  • The image below depicts the staging and workup of rectal cancer. Diagnostics. Staging and workup of rectal cancer patients. Signs and symptoms Bleeding is the most common symptom of rectal cancer, occurring in 60% of patients.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In all cases, the preoperative workup included endoscopic examination of the rectum, biopsy of the tumor, computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis, and chest x-ray.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Multiple Colonic Polyps
  • Although endoscopically diagnosed with multiple colonic polyps, presumed to be hamartomas, and an invasive rectal adenocarcinoma, postoperative pathology findings confirmed the rectal cancer and showed multiple colonic adenomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • RESULTS: About half the patients on each of the two treatment arms experienced at least one episode of severe or worse toxicity, and there was one treatment-related death on each arm. No episodes of leukemia have been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The increased use of multimodal therapy for the treatment of Stage II and III disease continues.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: To conduct a study of the process of treatment planning and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid in the United States, and to compare survey results to consensus guidelines.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A review of the clinical trials evaluating this treatment modality shows that it can decrease the rate of local recurrence and may even improve the overall 5-year survival.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this case, there was neither estrogen treatment nor any other medications which have been discussed in the literature as inducing fibroadenomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of IIIA approaches that of IIB etc. This is not yet in widespread use). The advent of the newer chemotherapy agents has made a significant impact on rectal cancer prognosis.[myvmc.com]
  • CONCLUSION: This report illustrates a case of intestinal clear cell adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis that suggested a poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Adenocarcinoma of the colon is a virulent disease in children and has a poor prognosis. The reasons for this are explored, and a literature review is included.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • This article describes a patient with a large squamous carcinoma of the anus along with a large adenocarcinoma of the rectum, and also discusses a current review of the etiology and treatment of squamous carcinoma of the anus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiological agents Environmental & dietary factors Chemical carcinogenesis.[de.slideshare.net]
  • General reference Etiology CRC most often occurs as transformation within adenomatous polyps . About 80% of cases are sporadic, and 20% have an inheritable component.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Multiple etiological factors are thought to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. 9 Some investigators have implicated lifestyle changes as the cause for increased incidence of rectal cancer, while others think of genetic factors.[jpma.org.pk]
  • The incidence and epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and screening recommendations are common to both colon cancer and rectal cancer. The image below depicts the staging and workup of rectal cancer. Diagnostics.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective nature and the information available in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Increasing incidence of rectal cancer in patients aged younger than 40 years: an analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. Cancer 2010; 116: 4354-9. 4.[jpma.org.pk]
  • J Natl Cancer Inst 100: 1184-7 31 Pera M, Manterola C, Vidal O, Grande L (2005) Epidemiology of esophageal adenocarcinoma. J Surg Oncol 92: 151-9 .[codes.iarc.fr]
  • Nevertheless, in the past few years epidemiological and clinical studies have shed new light on the management of patients with mucinous cancer.[esmo.org]
  • Colorectal cancer in Jordan and Nova Scotia: a comparative epidemiologic and histopathologic study . Cancer 46 , 420–428 (1980). 9. Hyngstrom, J. R. et al.[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Collision tumors have an idiopathic pathophysiology and in fact "accidental meeting" is accepted by many authors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 126. National Cancer Institute website.[owensborohealthse3.adam.com]
  • "The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies" . CMAJ . 174 (9): 1293–9. doi : 10.1503/cmaj.051299 . PMC 1435949 . PMID 16636330 .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Univariate sub-group analyses showed that the treatment effect for surgery alone vs preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery was not significant in patients whose cancer (TNM stage I to IV) was located between 10.1 cm and 15 cm from the anal verge. [5] Pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • The mucin, in turn, creates a barrier that may, in fact, prevent chemotherapy medications from effectively penetrating cancer cells. In short, the chemo may not be able to get where it needs to be.[verywellhealth.com]
  • […] undergoing colorectal surgery despite routine efforts to prevent them.[centerwatch.com]
  • CAN RECTAL CANCER BE PREVENTED? Rectal cancer is preventable. Nearly all rectal cancer develops from rectal polyps, which are benign growths on the rectal wall.[fascrs.org]
  • Prevention If there is a family history of developing such cancer, one should get regular screening tests to protect themselves from the disease. Other prevention measures include: Quitting smoking. Limiting alcohol consumption.[medanta.org]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!