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Adjustment Disorder


Presentation

  • The aims of the present proposal are to discuss the shortcomings of AD conceptualisations and to present recommendations for the future. SAMPLING AND METHODS: This conceptual paper is based on an iterative process of debate between the authors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nightmare
  • Disorder Suggestions Acute Stress Disorder – Mental Shock, Psychological Shock, Traumatic Event, Fearful Experiences Anxiety Disorder NOS – Pathological Fear, Anxiety, Excessive Worry, Phobia, Unpleasant Emotional State Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – Nightmares[ietherapy.com]
  • He had nightmares and problems sleeping, and he started drinking a bottle of booze every night. "I'd drink until I knocked myself out.[militarytimes.com]
  • Along with therapy, a patient may be given medication to treat nightmares or to temporarily relieve anxiety to increase functionality.[ownshrink.com]
  • […] hypersomnia F51.12 Insufficient sleep syndrome F51.13 Hypersomnia due to other mental disorder F51.19 Other hypersomnia not due to a substance or known physiological condition F51.3 Sleepwalking [somnambulism] F51.4 Sleep terrors [night terrors] F51.5 Nightmare[icd10data.com]
Enuresis
  • Symptoms include anxiety, withdrawal, depression, impulsive outbursts, crying spells, attention-seeking behavior, enuresis, loss of appetite, aches, pains, and muscle spasms. It can be persistent if symptoms continue for six months or more.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Death Anxiety
  • Using an online survey, 379 adult participants were recruited, and filled out Adjustment disorder, PTSD symptomatology scales, as well as a previous exposure, magnitude of exposure and death anxiety scales.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Noncompliance
  • Trautman PD, Stewart N, Morishima A (1993) Are adolescent suicide attempters noncompliant with outpatient care? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:89–94 PubMed Google Scholar 41.[doi.org]
Palpitations
  • An adjustment disorder can have a wide variety of symptoms, which may include: Feeling of hopelessness Sadness Frequent crying Anxiety (nervousness) Worry Headaches or stomachaches Palpitations (an unpleasant sensation of irregular or forceful beating[hopecounselingservices.net]
  • They may include: Sadness Worry Trouble sleeping Trouble concentrating Being very tense and nervous Crying Trembling Heart palpitations Making poor decisions What to do for adjustment disorder Many symptoms of adjustment disorder are similar to TBI symptoms[saintlukeskc.org]
  • Heart palpitations Symptoms are often serious and intense and can be exhausting to the patient.[justbelieverecovery.com]
  • […] helplessness Lack of optimism Loss of ability to feel pleasure in previously pleasurable events or activities Sadness Tearfulness and crying A general state of anxiety Worry or concern related to the stressor(s) Headaches Stomach pain or nausea Heart palpitations[optionsbehavioralhealthsystem.com]
Irritability
  • You might experience physical symptoms of anxiety like muscle tension, headaches, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and stress.[gad.about.com]
  • Disorder – Mental Shock, Psychological Shock, Traumatic Event, Fearful Experiences Anxiety Disorder NOS – Pathological Fear, Anxiety, Excessive Worry, Phobia, Unpleasant Emotional State Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – Nightmares, Insomnia, Sexual Abuse, Irritation[ietherapy.com]
  • Apart from gloomy mood and general anxiety, depression includes a number of other associated symptoms like insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of or increase in appetite, agitation, and easy irritability.[newsmax.com]
  • Signs and Symptoms Symptoms of adjustment disorder include abnormal anxiety or depression, sleeping problems, crying spells, avoiding school, becoming isolated from family and friends, irritability, vandalism, and fighting.[childrensneuropsych.com]
  • Some who have recently experienced a stressor may be more sad or irritable than usual and feeling somewhat hopeless. Others become more nervous and worried. And other individuals combine these two emotional patterns.[psychnet-uk.com]

Treatment

  • We characterized adolescent outpatients with AD in psychosocial background and treatment received compared with patients with other non-psychotic disorders (OND).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, for some individuals treatment may be beneficial. AD sufferers with depressive or anxiety symptoms may benefit from treatments usually used for depressive or anxiety disorders.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • It has a reasonably good short-term prognosis, in spite of the fact that patients with this diagnosis typically present with comorbid specific psychiatric disorders. Controlling for the effects of comorbidity, AD does not predict later dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Most adults who are diagnosed with adjustment disorder have a favorable prognosis. For most people, an adjustment disorder is temporary and will either resolve by itself or respond to treatment.[minddisorders.com]
  • Adjustment disorder treatment and prognosis People with an adjustment disorder are usually given talk therapy. In talk therapy, the clinician discusses the patient’s problems and provides coping strategies.[sovhealth.com]
  • These medicines may help if you are: Nervous or anxious most of the time Not sleeping very well Very sad or depressed Outlook (Prognosis) With the right help and support, you should get better quickly.[mountsinai.org]

Etiology

  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been postulated that stress is part of the etiological process of Parkinson's disease (PD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Etiology) Adjustment Disorder is caused by certain life stressors that an individual may experience and their inability to cope with these stresses Chronic illness, stressful situations, major life changes, sexuality issues, and chemical imbalances in[dovemed.com]
  • Varies among population High incidence during times of disaster and in patients with chronic illnesses Common diagnosis in clinical setting Prevalence Varies among population 11–18% among primary care ( 2 ) 10–35% in consultation liaison psychiatry ( 2 ) Etiology[unboundmedicine.com]

Epidemiology

  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the relative frequency with which the diagnosis of adjustment disorder is made, there is a very limited research literature in regard to its cause, epidemiology and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this article, the author reviews the information that is available on the epidemiology, clinical features, validity, measurement, and treatment of adjustment disorder.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The objective of this study was to examine the neurochemical variables' platelet MAO activity and urinary MHPG, 5HIAA and HVA, the main metabolites of noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine, neurotransmitters that are considered to be involved in the pathophysiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] population High incidence during times of disaster and in patients with chronic illnesses Common diagnosis in clinical setting Prevalence Varies among population 11–18% among primary care ( 2 ) 10–35% in consultation liaison psychiatry ( 2 ) Etiology and Pathophysiology[unboundmedicine.com]
  • […] include the following: Adjustmentlike disorders with delayed onset of symptoms ( 3 months after the stressor) Adjustmentlike disorders of prolonged duration ( 6 months) without prolonged duration of the stressor Persistent complex bereavement disorder Pathophysiology[emedicine.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention There are no guaranteed ways to prevent adjustment disorders. But developing healthy coping skills and learning to be resilient may help you during times of high stress.[mayoclinic.org]
  • AIMS: To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Currently, there is no effective prevention of Adjustment Disorder.[dovemed.com]

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