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Adrenal Gland Disease

Adrenal Gland Diseases


Presentation

  • These different diseases present in different forms and vary widely with no two patients presenting with the same symptoms.[drlam.com]
  • Extreme sensitivity to the hormone insulin, which normally is present in the bloodstream. This sensitivity may lead to low blood sugar levels. Increased risk during stressful periods, such as surgery, infection, or injury.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • Lack of adrenal hormones may cause: Elevated levels of potassium Extreme sensitivity to the hormone insulin, which normally is present in the bloodstream (This sensitivity may lead to low blood sugar levels.)[jerseyshoreuniversitymedicalcenter.com]
  • If the hormone levels are elevated above normal, adrenal gland disease is present. Another way to diagnose this problem is with an abdominal ultrasound.[avianandexotic.com]
Hypotension
  • Depends on the course of the disease: acute stage: the patient presents with fever, back pain, hypotension, weakness chronic stage : progressive lethargy, weakness, cutaneous pigmentation, weight loss Laboratory data chemistry: hyponatremia, hyperkalemia[radiopaedia.org]
  • Additional signs and symptoms include weakness, tiredness, dizziness, low blood pressure that falls further when standing ( orthostatic hypotension ), cardiovascular collapse, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] imbalance can, however, be a contributing factor in a wide range of medical conditions, many of which may seem unrelated, including the following: Arthritis Chronic fatigue syndrome Depression and anxiety Fibromyalgia IBS or chronic digestive problems Hypotension[marcellepick.com]
  • Symptoms of adrenal gland disorders may include: dizziness excessive fatigue sweating nausea vomiting increased salt cravings low blood sugar low blood pressure, also known as hypotension irregular periods dark patches on your skin muscle and joint pain[healthline.com]
Hirsutism
  • Mild overproduction of androgens is common but may lead only to increased hair growth ( hirsutism ). True virilizing disease is rare, affecting only about 1 or 2 of every 100,000 women.[cushings-help.com]

Workup

  • Anytime anyone presents with fatigue and low energy state, a complete cardiac, hormonal, hematological, oncological and metabolic workup is needed. When the result is normal and out of the box a different diagnosis needs to be considered.[drlam.com]
  • Those with these symptoms deserve compassion, a thorough workup looking for recognized (but often overlooked) medical causes, and a thoughtful treatment plan.[thyroid.about.com]
  • Addison Disease workup at eMedicine Further reading [ edit ] Bornstein, SR; Allolio, B; Arlt, W; Barthel, A; Don-Wauchope, A; Hammer, GD; Husebye, ES; Merke, DP; Murad, MH; Stratakis, CA; Torpy, DJ (February 2016).[en.wikipedia.org]
Hyponatremia
  • Consequently, most common symptoms can be traced back to a root adrenal hormone; for example, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia are produced due to the lack of aldosterone to encourage reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium.[washendo.com]
  • At the same time mild hyperkalemia (6.0 mmol/L) and hyponatremia (132 mmol/L) were diagnosed and treated symptomatically. In the next two months she felt worse, lose about 30 kg. The laboratory exams confirmed the failure of the adrenals.[endocrine-abstracts.org]
  • Depends on the course of the disease: acute stage: the patient presents with fever, back pain, hypotension, weakness chronic stage : progressive lethargy, weakness, cutaneous pigmentation, weight loss Laboratory data chemistry: hyponatremia, hyperkalemia[radiopaedia.org]
  • This removes the tonic vagal and glossopharyngeal inhibition on the central release of ADH : high levels of ADH will ensue, which will subsequently lead to increase in water retention and hyponatremia.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Confusion Pain in your lower back or legs Severe abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, leading to dehydration Reduced consciousness or delirium In an addisonian crisis you will also have: Low blood pressure High potassium (hyperkalemia) and low sodium (hyponatremia[mayoclinic.org]
Cortisol Increased
  • The main problem is that the need for cortisol increases during physical stress, eg major surgery. All patients would be advised to carry a warning card stating their condition and explaining that they are dependent on adrenal replacement.[netdoctor.co.uk]

Treatment

  • Treatment for Conn's syndrome varies depending on its severity.[washendo.com]
  • Treatment may also include taking fludrocortisone, a drug that helps restore the body's level of sodium and potassium.[jerseyshoreuniversitymedicalcenter.com]
  • Treatment may also include taking a medication that helps restore the body's level of sodium and potassium.[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • […] for Cushing's syndrome: Treatment for Cushing's syndrome depends on its cause.[shifrinmd.com]
  • Treatment of hyperadrenalism will vary depending on which hormone is creating the problem, its underlying cause, and the severity of the symptoms.[decorlando.com]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Prognosis after treatment is good but quality of life may be affected due to the long-term effects of hypercortisolemia. Without treatment the disease is life-threatening as in the case of manifest hypercortisolism.[orpha.net]
  • […] adrenalitis): enlargement of both adrenal glands, with necrotic centers and peripheral enhancing rims chronic : both adrenal glands appear small and atrophic, associated with calcifications ( adrenal calcification ) in granulomatous adrenalitis Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • What is the prognosis with a pheochromocytoma? Pheochromocytoma is benign in most cases, and if blood pressure-related surgical complications can be avoided, the likelihood of cure is excellent.[medicinenet.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology The exact etiology is unknown but the adrenal overgrowth seen in AIMAH may be due to the expression of aberrant membrane receptors found in the adrenal cortex that regulate cortisol secretion and which are stimulated by gastric inhibitory polypeptide[orpha.net]
  • At 1855, when Addison described it tuberculosis (TB) was the main etiology. May be we are coming to that time. TB is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis .[endocrine-abstracts.org]
  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency due to lack of stimulation of the gland is a more common etiology overall.[radiopaedia.org]
  • ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS• Tuberculosis (TB) :TB is an infection which usually affects the lungs.[slideshare.net]

Epidemiology

  • Summary Epidemiology Prevalence of endogenous CS is estimated at 1/26,000 and AIMAH represents less than 1% of the cases.[orpha.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Yen and Jaffe’s reproductive endocrinology: physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elservier Saunders; 2014. p. 551–64. CrossRef Google Scholar 3. Auchus RJ.[link.springer.com]
  • […] the body, especially lung ), hemorrhage (e.g. in Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome ), particular infections ( tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis ), or the deposition of abnormal protein in amyloidosis. [22] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Until a few years ago, the only treatment available for this ultimately fatal condition was surgery to remove the cancerous gland(s) – a procedure that carries a great deal of risk and that doesn’t prevent the development of the disease in the remaining[avianexoticsvet.com]
  • To sum up, it is easy to prevent the disorders of the suprarenal glands. Firstly, you should try to avoid the excessive use of steroid drugs. Moreover, go for a frequent examination of the adrenal glands.[organsofthebody.com]
  • The deficiency prevents the body from manufacturing carbohydrates, which are needed for cellular function, from protein, for fighting infections properly, and controlling inflammation.[merckmanuals.com]
  • This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.[adrenalfatigue.org]

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