Alopecia is characterized by loss of hair from the scalp and body. Such a type of condition is also commonly referred to as hair loss.
Alopecia is characterized by excessive hair loss of more than 100 per day. Affected individuals may complain of pruritus, and burning sensation in that area. The pattern of hair loss is mostly to the sides, and lower back region of the scalp. Alopecia totalis occurs with complete loss of hair on the scalp. Alopecia universalis is defined as total hair loss on all the hair bearing areas of the body. The occurrence of alopecia can be focal or diffuse in pattern.
Yellow spots are the clinical signs of alopecia, which are reported in few cases. Other clinical presentations are broken hair, clustered short and tapering hair. In long standing cases of alopecia the phase of telogen hair reaches to 100% . Individuals with alopecia also undergo psychological distress, due to excessive loss of hair that affects their cosmetic appearance.
Entire Body System
Approximate Synonyms Alopecia febrilis Alopecia follicularis Alopecia hereditaria Alopecia liminaris frontalis Alopecia localis Alopecia mucinosa Alopecia neurotica Alopecia parvimaculata Alopecia seborrheica Alopecia senilis Alopecia totalis Alopecia [icd9data.com]
The two main types of permanent alopecia are alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia. With alopecia areata, hair falls out in spots all over the body. [web.archive.org]
alopecias [alopecia areata, androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and psoriatic alopecia)] for the presence of NHS. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The following methods are employed for diagnosing alopecia.
- Pull test: In this test, by applying gentle extraction hair is pulled from 3 different areas of the scalp, are counted, and examined under microscope. Such a kind of test is helpful for determination of diffuse scalp hair loss.
- Pluck test: A test of this kind is used for analyzing abnormalities in the 3 phases of hair growth cycle.
- Biopsy: Scalp biopsy is indicated, when diagnosis is unclear and cause is unknown.
- Hair counts: This is employed when the pull test gave negative results.
- Trichoscopy is used for differential diagnosis of alopecia.
- The condition of female pattern baldness can be detected using two methods namely Savin scale and Ludwig scale.
Abnormal status for these biochemical markers included hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride level, 160 mg/dL), hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level, 220 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259]), low high-density lipoprotein [doi.org]
High protein diet, iron supplements, exclusion of drugs which induce catagen like beta-blockers, retinoids, anticoagulants, diagnosis and treatment of catagen-inducing endocrine disorders (thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, or hyperprolactinemia) [doi.org]
Alopecia is a benign condition. Treatment has a little or no role in preventing this condition to recur. Remissions and reoccurrences are seen in most of the cases. Methods employed for treating alopecia help in arresting further hair loss, and has little effects in hair regrowth  .
- Minoxidil: Minoxidil 1% cream, a vasodilator shows some improvement in alopecia, but recurrence rate is higher. The medication is available in liquid or foam forms, and needs to be applied at least twice a day on scalp.
- Corticosteroid: Corticosteroid therapy may be effective in some cases which includes Betamethasone Dipropionate cream 0.05%. Corticosteroid injections can improve the condition. These are injected every 4 to 6 weeks before growth is noted.
- Immunosupressants: Immunosuppresants are proven to be effective in few cases of alopecia. However these are known to present with side effects and therefore their efficacy is questionable.
- Hair transplant: Hair transplantation surgery is also carried out for correcting alopecia. Several transplants may be necessary.
Alopecia can predispose an individual to develop psychological problems. The prognosis of the condition is poor; however hair loss is arrested, with medications and topical ointments to manage symptoms . But, new hair growth occurs at a slower pace.
The exact cause of alopecia is unknown. However, several factors such as febrile illnesses, pregnancy, trauma, drugs, chemotherapy and autoimmune conditions, can trigger an episode of hair loss. Individuals with family history of alopecia are at increased risk of developing the same.
Alopecia can also be associated with certain conditions like Down syndrome, Collagen vascular diseases, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis and thyroid disease. In few patients, a gene DQ3 is found that could be responsible for the predisposition of this condition. In some studies, Interleukinin 1 and tumor necrosis factor were found to play an important role in inhibiting hair growth .
Males and females are equally affected. Alopecia can occur at any age, but its peak incidence is seen from 15 to 29 years of age. Several other abnormalities like koilonychia, onycomedesis and Beau lines are common abnormalities of nails, seen in individuals with alopecia. Frequency of involvement from high to low is as follows, scalp, beard, eyebrows, and extremities .
The hair growth cycle follows 3 distinct phases, anagen, catagen and telogen phase. The anagen is the growing phase, followed by short transitional phase, and then resting phase which is known as telogen. After the telogen phase, hair fall occurs, and new hair begins to grow in the follicles again. Under normal circumstances, about 40 to 100 hair fall each day, which is natural. However, when the number exceeds more than 100, then it is termed as clinical hair loss – tellogen effluvium .
Alopecia cannot be prevented. However, the underlying disease conditions should be promptly treated to stop aggravating the condition .
Alopecia is hair loss, which can exhibit many patterns in appearance. It is a medically benign condition, but can also cause psychological distress to the subject, and his family. The onset of alopecia is mostly in the early years of life. Patients may find themselves depressed and stressed due to this condition .
- Definition: Alopecia is defined as hair loss. The pattern of hair loss can be localized or diffuse. Hair is lost in tufts and patches. Thinning of hair, broken hair and yellow spots are common findings. Alopecia is not only confined to the scalp, but it can also occur in any hair bearing area of the body.
- Cause: Some causes include drugs, chemotherapy, pregnancy and trauma. A positive family history is one of the main underlying causes of alopecia.
- Symptoms: Yellow spots on the scalp and itching on the affected area may occur. Loss of hair in patches is the common symptom. Hair loss mainly occurs on the side or in the centre of the scalp. Individuals with alopecia often undergo psychological distress, due to baldness.
- Diagnosis: Diagnosis is mostly made on the basis of clinical symptoms. A positive family history points out towards a positive diagnosis. Pull test, pluck test, daily hair counts and trichoscopy are employed, for diagnosis of the condition. Scalp biopsy is required in very few cases.
- Treatment: There is no specific treatment guideline in alopecia. Immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and vasodilators play an important role in the treatment. No treatment is found to be completely effective in alopecia. Recurrence rates are very high. Significant remissions occur in many cases .
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